Difference between revisions of "Village Buildings"

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'''Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  '''
 
'''Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  '''
  
A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the [https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]'s spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals).&nbsp;by Tim McCormick.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles:<br/> ''Revillaging the World'';<br/> ''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon''.
+
A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the [https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]'s spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs&nbsp;by Tim McCormick.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles:&nbsp;''Revillaging the World'';
  
This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;
+
This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
+
<br/> &nbsp;
+
  
 
= Introduction / background =
 
= Introduction / background =
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== Prefatory quote ideas ==
 
== Prefatory quote ideas ==
  
Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing<br/> J.F.C. Turner&nbsp;<br/> Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview.&nbsp;<br/> John Ruskin<br/> William Morris<br/> Jack Tafari&nbsp;<br/> John Brinckerhoff Jackson
+
Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing<br/> J.F.C. Turner&nbsp;<br/> Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview.&nbsp;<br/> William Morris<br/> Jack Tafari&nbsp;<br/> John Brinckerhoff Jackson
  
 
"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency."&nbsp;<br/> - Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946.&nbsp;
 
"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency."&nbsp;<br/> - Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946.&nbsp;
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See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
 
See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
 +
 +
Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718.&nbsp;
 +
 +
"The [Citizens Advisory] committee has learned that traditionally a complex set of factors, including transportation, circulation, zoning, and taxation, have determined land use when logically these factors ought to support prior land use decisions. The Downtown Plan is an opportunity for the citizens of Portland to say: Let's first decide how we want to use our Downtown and then determine what tools are necessary to achieve our land use decisions. For example, our goals call for increasing the number of low-income and middle-income housing units Downtown. The traditional land use determinants would probably bar implementation of this goal. Thus, if the citizens of Portland approve this goal, then alternative implementing methods need to be developed." (p.2)
 +
 +
"[Section:] Housing & Downtown Neighborhoods.&nbsp;<br/> General Goal: to give high priority to increasing the number of residential accommodations in the Downtown area for a mix of age and income groups.."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"Encourage the fullest use of public and private programs to ensure that future Downtown housing accommodates a mix of low, moderate, and high-income people."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"Recognize the differing needs and problems of the various groups who will be housed, including those groups who naturally gravitate to the city core. Provide housing and services commensurate with their physical and social needs. These groups include the single retired, the elderly, itinerant workers, 'down outers,' students, the handicapped, as well as middle and upper income groups." (p.3).&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
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Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. [http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html]
 
Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. [http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html]
  
&nbsp;
+
Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001.&nbsp;<br/> http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/.
 +
 
 +
Dome Village (Justiceville II), downtown Los Angeles,1993-2006&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Founder and housing activist Ted Hayes was friends with Craig Chamberlain, architect and student/friend of Buckminster Fuller, who proposed creating dome dwellings on the site. Chamberlain also apparently had experience with fabricating fiberglass surfboards, and this informed his design of the Omni-Sphere dwellings at Dome Village, made of polyester fiberglass panels bolted together. &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Mr. Lod Cook, the then President and Chairperson of the Board of the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) which contributed $250,000 to initiate the Dome Village said of it at the opening ceremony on November 3, 1993, “The most innovative concept addressing homelessness in at least the last 50 years.”
 +
 
 +
The 20 20’+12’ apex omni-sphere domes of that made up the village on 11/4 aces lot in downtown, Los Angeles, was invented by Craig Chamberlain, a US Military, Vietnam combat &nbsp;Veteran and ardent disciple-student, as well as personal friend of the late, R. Buckminister Fuller.
 +
 
 +
A wealthy property owner, Mr. David Adams, met with Ted, and so understood the immediate and long term resolution to chronic, sidewalk, encampment homelessness, became his business credibility partner; along with LA Mayor Richard Riordan who led the cities Planning Department, to permit the omni-spheres as legal, temporary, transitional structures for so said purposes.
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
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*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jones, Lucy. ''The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them)''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jones, Lucy. ''The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them)''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001.&nbsp;<br/> http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/.<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;5, No. 2, December 2011. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;5, No. 2, December 2011. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
*Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].  
 +
*
 +
Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718.&nbsp;
 +
 
 
*Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019).&nbsp;"Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." ''Architecture Talk'' (podcast hosted by Prakash). &nbsp;March 13, 2019. [https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39 https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019).&nbsp;"Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." ''Architecture Talk'' (podcast hosted by Prakash). &nbsp;March 13, 2019. [https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39 https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Steven Raymond, Eric Steven (2003).''The Art of Unix Programming''. [https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Steven Raymond, Eric Steven (2003).''The Art of Unix Programming''. [https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Willse, Craig. The Value of Homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Willse, Craig. The Value of Homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Wyatt, Anne (2014) "Rethinking Shelter and Tiny House Communities: Dignity Village, Portland, and Lessons from San Luis Obispo," Focus: Vol. 11: Issue&nbsp;1, Article 14.&nbsp;[http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14 http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14].  
 
*Wyatt, Anne (2014) "Rethinking Shelter and Tiny House Communities: Dignity Village, Portland, and Lessons from San Luis Obispo," Focus: Vol. 11: Issue&nbsp;1, Article 14.&nbsp;[http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14 http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14].  
 
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Revision as of 23:35, 18 November 2019

Village Buildings cover mockup 1

Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs by Tim McCormick. 
Alternate titles: Revillaging the World;

This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 
 

Contents

Introduction / background

Prefatory quote ideas

Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing
J.F.C. Turner 
Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview. 
William Morris
Jack Tafari 
John Brinckerhoff Jackson

"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency." 
- Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946. 

"In the broadest sense, the goal of urban planning is to facilitate communication." 
     - Carl Abbott, PhD, Professor & Chair, College of Planning & Public Health, Portland State University. (ca 2004). Used as prefatory quote in 2004 "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-" by Dignity Village Council and City Repair Project. 

 "I want a left that can operate on all scales."
     - Daniel Immerwarh, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015).

"Distrust all claims for 'one true way.'"
    Unix "Rule of Diversity", in e.g. E.S. Raymond, The Art of Unix Programming, 2003. 

"We all live in a state of ambitious poverty." ("Hic vivimus ambitiosa paupertate omnes").
   -Juvenal‬, Satires

"What the poor need is not charity but capital, not caseworkers but co-workers. And what the rich need is a wise, honorable way of divesting themselves from their overabundance."
   - Millard Fuller, founder of Habitat for Humanity, in 1968 letter to Koinonia Farm community, proposing HfH. [quoted in Stevens & Swisher, Community Self-Help Housing Manual, published by Habitat for Humanity in 1982].

"Pray to God, but row towards shore." 
     - Russian proverb.

 

Foreword / Preface ideas

Andrew Heben
Mark Lakeman
Sergio Palleroni
Todd Ferry 

Project goals 

Provide a successor to Tent City Urbanism (2014)

help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible, the work of housing innovators such as:

Build historical, global, and critical perspectives

  • developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.
  • Community Development [Housing] - CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s. ,  pedagogical & social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!) perspectives. 
  • critiques of self-build and community development.  
  • surveying and responding to common objections / counterarguments. (anti-pattern language).
  • broad taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches. (see Appendix).

Suggest future paths - cluster housing, network villages, eco/resilient villages

 

Expanded project: help build knowledge/organizing network between allied organizations

e.g. with Village Collaborative, Village Coalition (Portland), LIHI (Seattle). 

Book as network: see also: "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book" [McCormick 2013]. 

See also Ward Cunningham's work on Federated Wiki, use on A Pattern Language for Growing Regions (Mehaffy et al).  

Network participants: 

  • Village Collaborative
  • Center for Public Interest Design
  • Meyer Trust
  • Housing.wiki
  • A Pattern Language for Growing Regions
  • Wikipedia
  • Spatial Agency 
  • etc
  • see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network, also built on MediaWiki platform as is HousingWiki. 

 

 

Background: utopian state, colonies, communes, planning 

 

Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan

Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718. 

"The [Citizens Advisory] committee has learned that traditionally a complex set of factors, including transportation, circulation, zoning, and taxation, have determined land use when logically these factors ought to support prior land use decisions. The Downtown Plan is an opportunity for the citizens of Portland to say: Let's first decide how we want to use our Downtown and then determine what tools are necessary to achieve our land use decisions. For example, our goals call for increasing the number of low-income and middle-income housing units Downtown. The traditional land use determinants would probably bar implementation of this goal. Thus, if the citizens of Portland approve this goal, then alternative implementing methods need to be developed." (p.2)

"[Section:] Housing & Downtown Neighborhoods. 
General Goal: to give high priority to increasing the number of residential accommodations in the Downtown area for a mix of age and income groups.."
   "Encourage the fullest use of public and private programs to ensure that future Downtown housing accommodates a mix of low, moderate, and high-income people."
   "Recognize the differing needs and problems of the various groups who will be housed, including those groups who naturally gravitate to the city core. Provide housing and services commensurate with their physical and social needs. These groups include the single retired, the elderly, itinerant workers, 'down outers,' students, the handicapped, as well as middle and upper income groups." (p.3). 

 

Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform
 

 

 

Early villages for the homeless

Dome Village, Los Angeles

1993-2006. 

Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html

Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001. 
http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/.

Dome Village (Justiceville II), downtown Los Angeles,1993-2006 

Founder and housing activist Ted Hayes was friends with Craig Chamberlain, architect and student/friend of Buckminster Fuller, who proposed creating dome dwellings on the site. Chamberlain also apparently had experience with fabricating fiberglass surfboards, and this informed his design of the Omni-Sphere dwellings at Dome Village, made of polyester fiberglass panels bolted together.  

Mr. Lod Cook, the then President and Chairperson of the Board of the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) which contributed $250,000 to initiate the Dome Village said of it at the opening ceremony on November 3, 1993, “The most innovative concept addressing homelessness in at least the last 50 years.”

The 20 20’+12’ apex omni-sphere domes of that made up the village on 11/4 aces lot in downtown, Los Angeles, was invented by Craig Chamberlain, a US Military, Vietnam combat  Veteran and ardent disciple-student, as well as personal friend of the late, R. Buckminister Fuller.

A wealthy property owner, Mr. David Adams, met with Ted, and so understood the immediate and long term resolution to chronic, sidewalk, encampment homelessness, became his business credibility partner; along with LA Mayor Richard Riordan who led the cities Planning Department, to permit the omni-spheres as legal, temporary, transitional structures for so said purposes.

 

Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

Dignity Village's [web] site: https://dignityvillage.org

See article: Dignity Village
 

References

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village
 

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too

Right 2 Survive organization - Ibraham Mubarak. 

 

Portland's food-cart culture - re-normalizing informal & interim use of urban space 

(discussed by Palleroni & Cruz on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]). 

 

Hazelnut Grove, the Village Coalition, and POD Initiative 

Hazelnut Grove

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 

 

Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design

See article: Center for Public Interest Design.

Connecting global practices of informal, community-based, participatory development
 

Teddy Cruz interview

 from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]:

"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.

"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations. 

"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words, the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 

 

Village Coalition & POD Initiative

Cross-sector coalition and design, to convene deep community response

See article: Village Coalition

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • Tim's photo album on POD Initiative: [1]. 
  • Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

Kenton Women's and later villages

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village
 

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village


Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village

Tim's photo album on Agape Village: [1].


Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:  how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why. 


Permanent villages


Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans
 

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans

See also:  Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington. 

 

Cass Community Social Services - Tiny Homes Detroit

Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit."  https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/.  Accessed 19 November 2019. 

 

Veterans' Villages - Canada, Wisconsin

 

Portland grant- and developer-funded housing experiments

Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiencies program.

New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects, Inc

See article:  LISAH

Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html.

LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building. 

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village
 

Meyer Trust - Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019

 

Rob Justus - Home First low-cost affordable housing

 

Guerrilla Development - Jolene's First Cousin project

See article: Jolene's First Cousin

Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html.

2016 - Portland Housing Bureau bought the Joyce Hotel SRO downtown. 1st publicly owned SRO in Portland?

2018 - PHB bought Westwind Apartments, in Chinatown. Will be torn down and replaced with new building. 

PHB and state are contributing $4.5M to new Findley Commons, run by Do Good Multnomah.

Also contributed to a new $15M Central City Concern development with 40 SRO units. 

LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building. 

Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. Willamette Week, 14 February 2018.  https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/

Urban Land Institute. "Deal Profile: Jolene's First Cousin." ULI. https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/.  Undated, accessed 18 November 2019. 

 

Co-op/condo villages - Orange Splot, etc

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

Mason Street Townhomes

 

'bottom-up' and the Community Development tradition 

DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 

Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. 

Immerwahr, Daniel (2018).  Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 

O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers.
Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317. https://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/OQ_JHR00PB.pdf.

Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019].  https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. 

Simon, William H. (2002).  The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11

Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. 
10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x

Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. 
 

 

Future paths

Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support

Colin Ward. Talking Houses (1975). 
  "Dweller control" in public housing.  

from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]: Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars:

"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.
    Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."
"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision." 


CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):
emergence in 1960s. 

Housing vouchers and income support. 

 

Village cluster housing

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program? 

City of Milwaukie study

[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.]. 

a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.

Created [mostly] by community capital, vs financial capital.
 

14 September 2019 post by Tim McCormick to American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook: 

To me it seems like a big, big potential opportunity for siting tiny houses, especially in Oregon, California, and Seattle, is in movable (and perhaps foundation-anchorable / deanchorable) tiny houses being accepted and facilitated in local accessory dwellings (ADU) ordinances, i.e. as backyard cottages. Also, in cluster-housing developments enabled on former single-family lots by new Oregon law (#HB2001), Portland law (pending RIP Residential Infill Program), and just-passed California ADU law.

The new Oregon Reach Code offers some help there by:

a) recognizing the use of standards applying to both vehicle and on-foundation cases, and making it easier to do both, e.g. with similar RV-type utility hookups; and

b) bringing movable tiny-house *into state building code*, which I think will make quite a difference in local governments approving this use for ADUs and other contexts.

What might take this even further?

Based partly on the Reach Code, I and friends in Portland have been developing for last year a proposal "New Starter Homes" for the city to pilot a wide-scale, affordable ADU program. It would help (and perhaps manage & pay for) low-income homeowners to put simple post foundations and utility hookups on their parcel, then help match them with low-income residents who'd bring, build or be offered use of a tiny house to put on the site. Tiny-house resident would pay pad rent & towards utilities, perhaps subsidized by city or funder.

Portland has 110,000 single-family lots which could take an ADU, according to Commissioner Eudaly's analysis. Currently there are ADUs on less than 2% of lots. If we could interest or incent just a few more % of homeowners to accept that simple and buryable post foundation being put in, and agree to 1-2 year lease hosting a tiny house, we could have 1000s of sitings in Portland.

Proposal: New Starter Homes:
Google Doc: http://bit.ly/levitatetown.
PDF: http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/New-Starter-Homes_2019-09-10.pdf.

Comments & questions invited!



References:

1) Oregon #HB2001, requires cottage clusters be allowed at least somewhere in all single-family residential zones above 25,000 population. See https://www.sightline.org/2019/06/30/oregon-just-voted-to-legalize-duplexes-on-almost-every-city-lot/.

2) Portland's proposed Residential Infill Program would enable fourplex developments on a large portion of residential lots citywide. RIP: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/76592.

3) Also, in an August 26, 2019 memo, the Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) noted that as part of a new "Anti-displacement Action Plan" added to RIP, it is discussing an idea to allow sixplexes if at least 3 units are affordable at 60% Median Family Income. https://efiles.portlandoregon.gov/Record/13182894/File/Document. It's apparently inspired by a similar new law in Austin, "Affordability Unlocked."

4) Oregon's Building Codes Division last year passed a Tiny House Code which allows < 400 square foot homes, both mobile and on foundation, to be permitted in building code. https://www.oregon.gov/bcd/codes-stand/Documents/reach-18reachcode.pdf. It was recognized by Portland Bureau of Development Services, which assigned an official to develop implementation materials and help developers in Portland: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bds/article/700062

5). City of Milwaukie released in June an impressive report "Milwaukie Cottage Cluster Analysis Final Report (done with Orange Splot of Portland and Opticos), that analyzed various hypothetical cluster developments. It showed that even if developed on a conventional for-profit model, they could bring costs of some units way down to 30-60% of Area Mean Income, far lower than existing or new single-family housing in the area. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1u5LhZGO8PLo7H40oduKWOhsbNvqge1Bm/view?usp=sharing

6. For a discussion of cottage clusters generally and how Portland might use them, see: Michael Andersen, "Cottage clusters: Portland’s chance to build community in a new way." Portland For Everyone, Nov. 2, 2017. https://medium.com/@pdx4all/cottage-clusters-portlands-chance-to-build-community-in-a-new-way-7c504c5b260b.


in Portland Residential Infill Project (RIP)

RIP is reducing the review procedure required for "planned developments" (PDs) which would include cluster housing, in most residential zones (R7, R5, R2.5). 

Portland, City of. Bureau of Planning & Sustainability. "Residential Infill Project: Recommended Draft, August 2019." Volume 1: Staff Report and Map Amendments
https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/746997.

"7. Continue to allow different building forms and site arrangements through a planned development review. Affects R7, R5 and R2.5 zoned properties.

"Land use review procedures, in order from least to greatest level of process, include Type I and Ix, Type II and IIx, Type III and Type IV. Most PDs currently go through a Type III procedure, which is decided by a Hearings Officer and, if appealed, by City Council. By comparison, a Type IIx land use review, which applies to smaller land divisions, is less expensive, requires less time to process and is a staff decision that can be appealed to the Hearings Officer. Both procedure types utilize the same approval criteria and provide opportunities for appeals at both the City and State level. The recommended threshold for PDs is changed so that proposals for up to 20 units are processed as a Type IIx case, the same maximum number of units that can be reviewed through a Type IIx standard R2.5 subdivision (10 lots with two units each)."
Planned development. See Chapter 33.270

 



2 November 2019 post by Tim McCormick to American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook: 

reposting to this group a long reply to a suggestion that tiny houses aren't appropriate in cities, because too low density, from PDX YIMBY group.

Original post was sharing an article about Sacramento's Mayor, also chairperson of California Statewide Commission on Homelessness, calling for large statewide expansion of tiny-home approaches. (http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/10/29/sacramento-mayor-calls-for-rapid-expansion-of-tiny-homes-across-california/). Doug Klotz in PDX YIMBY group commented: "While tiny homes might fill in on suburban lots, for urban areas, especially near transit, they do not provide the necessary density. Only multistory does that." My extended reply below.


Yes, I hope nobody considers tiny houses the answer to all housing needs/contexts or all homelessness issues. On the other hand, I also hope nobody considers our present set of approaches to be without major gaps and flaws, and large opportunities for change. Particularly, in my opinion, if you look at it from the bottom up -- i.e., what the most needy need, and what we could do with comparatively simple and decentralized approaches.

On density: yes, if you have a larger lot, zoned for multistory, and you have access to a lot of capital and good future rent revenues, then you can get more units with a large apartment building. However, most times and places in US cities are not like that, not even in most of inner Portland or with statewide HB2001 upzoning or citywide R.I.P. infill program. Most area of most US cities is 4-8000 square-foot lots with low-density residential, with prohibition of or strong opposition to large/high buildings. Available, financeable sites for large apartment buildings are scarce and costly, and will typically be built as market-rate, usually rental housing for the high end of market -- possibly with inclusionary housing units -- or sometimes as dedicated-affordable buildings, also costly per unit to build.

As a back-of-envelope exercise, we could take a typical Portland residential lot, of 50 x 100 feet, and consider development options. Assuming no on-site parking, and a 10' access way up the middle, it's plausible to create eight 20'x25' sub-lots, each of which could site most of the house models used at Emerald Village (see attached image). One unit might be a common building with shared kitchen, meeting/social space, etc.

I'm looking for examples of contemporary apartment buildings built in such a case, e.g. in Portland, and I'd say it's at least uncommon to put more than eight units on a site like this, though it can be done with small apartments, and has been done in other eras.

Aside from number of homes, an approach like dense, cluster, small housing has different characteristics and possibilities. First, it can require far less capital. Emerald Village, Eugene, for comparison (not that dense, but to compare model) is 22 mostly custom homes, total development cost including land $55k/home, which was financed by SquareOne Villages non-profit with small-scale grants and funds. (compared to $300-800k per affordable housing unit, typical range from Oregon to San Francisco).

This approach is also much more conducive to piecemeal and incremental development, both across a site and for an individual home which could be separately financed/finished/expanded over time -- this facilitates individual financing and building and owning. Which, incidentally, is characteristic of dwelling in many times and places, that gave people good opportunities to become owners and meet their needs -- including earlier eras in the US -- which is why I call a project proposal I'm working on for low-cost cottages, New Starter Homes.

Much lower capital requirements means many more parties can potentially develop, with different models such as limited-equity community land trust (e.g. SquareOne Villages), groups of people developing for their joint need (like Baugruppe model common in Germany, or any org/agency looking to create low-cost ownership housing.

Finally, I think small detached units have unusual potentials that we don't often think about. They can be pre-fabbed, so potentially built off-site more efficiently in all seasons, with much less construction disruption to area. They can be redeployable, so financed separately and more easily, and could move between interim-use, cluster-housing, or accessory-dwelling unit contexts. They can be built with very ecological materials, and have very low embedded and operating energy requirements. (home size is the #1 factor in building lifecycle energy use, along with driving less far to get to it). Also they can be more likely than large buildings to remain inhabitable after natural disasters like earthquakes, and can be relatively easily operated off grid; both of which sooner or later will be crucial when the Cascadia Fault earthquake hits Oregon.

When the Big One hits, I for one want to be living small, and cooperatively with neighbors."

 

Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages? 

anticipating a long-term increase in disaster and climate-change related disruption in US and globally. 

Help provide models and learning for the US and globally. 

Bridging emergency/immediate response with long-term adaptation and resettlement. (a long-running thorny problem, at least since the previous age of mass dislocation, during/after WWII). 

Note that the Pacific Northwest already receives a large in-migration from US (especially to Portland, Seattle, & Oregon coast), and is predicted to increasingly do so from climate-change effects upon other parts of the US that likely will make SW & SE of US increasingly uninhabitable or agriculturally viable. 

Oregon could experience large refugee / resettler influxes from California due to earthquake or wildfire impacts.

Oregon could also at any time be hit by "the Big One" offshore Cascadia Fault earthquake which will destroy coastal areas and devastate much of the infrastructure of western Oregon. Up to 100,000s of Oregon could be displaced, have uninhabitable homes, be without utility water, sewage, gas, electricity for months to years. 

 

Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use

see: PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes project

 

"Citizen Sector" (Alastair Parvin et al): digital distributed, mass self-build housing. 

see: Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016. 
https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c.
 

Constructing a legal right to housing

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).
Available at: https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766.

"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order. 

Note particularly:  
III. Occupying the American Right to Housing
   A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land 
   B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction
   C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless

 

Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

we shouldn't lower housing standards, we should provide enough funding

 

tiny houses / villages don't provide the needed density for urban areas

 

temporary or substandard housing/shelter isn't and distracts from the real solution, housing

'temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.  [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 
 

'Self build' and lower standards facilitate exploitation, inequality, defunding

e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo's critique of CIAM and "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts, in "Architecture's Public's," as serving interests of inequality and exploitation.

We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 

If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

 

Different housing for the poor and unhoused makes it stigmatized & unintegrated

Stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 

US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

Lower cost/standard housing may be more costly in long run

 


Lower building costs help developers, but don't lower prices

housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

 

 

Essay/article ideas (possible book chapters)

sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):


A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

possibly for an Appendix.
See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability.
 

Housing solutionism, and the best versus the good. 

It's an appealing, intuitive, idea, and often said in the homelessness world: the solution to homelessness is housing. (eg here by National Alliance to End Homelessness https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/housing/). Who could disagree? What devil would want that they shouldn't have housing?

However, perhaps it is a bit like saying the solution to cancer is to not have cancer. It's true enough, but how? Perhaps, in the case of cancer, first by studying how and doing what helps prevent it, e.g. health practices and environmental protections; then, how soonest to detect it, since sooner remedies are much more effective; then what techniques are best to treat it; then, how to fairly choose what to do, given competing prevention/treatment options to approve or fund. The goal is clear but there are many paths.

Greg-Barchuk--A-child-could-figure-out-how-to-end-homelessness.jpg

 

The self-evidentness of "Housing ends homelessness" belies the complex history of how it arose, and what work it does in the field. It is associated with the late-1990s categorizing the "chronicly homeless" (Culhane & Kahn, 1998, etc), who permanently need and can be effectively treated (Tsemberis 1999 etc) with conventional housing plus services, provided without treatment preconditions ("Housing First"). Increasingly this has been generalized into the officially endorsed concept for all homelessness response, and used to oppose or limit support for 'shelters,' or anything classified as transitional housing, and sometimes also charitable services such as mobile showers (e.g. Parsell & Watts, 2017).

Also, "housing ends homelessness" or Housing First ideas are typically used to argue, explicitly or implicitly, for providing housing that is the same as current, conventional market housing (see e.g. PSU HRAC's 2019 homelessness report); or a variant, "supportive housing," usually defined as that plus on-site medical and social services/facilities. Often, there is an argument that this is not only the best thing to, but saves public money by reducing use of other services -- which, while it helps to seal a slam-dunk case, turns out to be generally doubtful, and anyway unfortunate in arguing that helping the needy must pay for itself.

Or often, now, permanent supportive housing is seen as the /only/ solution. For example, a recent OPB story "Multnomah County Seeing Spike In People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness" quoted Multnomah County / City of Portland Joint Office of Homeless Services: "Jolin said the office already knows what the solution is. 'The fact that we don’t have supporting housing is why we’re seeing a persistent increase in the chronically homeless over time,' he said." The Joint Office "defines supportive housing as housing that is affordable to those with 'very limited to almost no income' and is equipped with onsite mental health treatment and other support services." [though the US Interagency Council on Homelessness doesn't consider on-site required: https://www.usich.gov/solutions/housing/supportive-housing/; and Sam Tsemberis, chief promulgator of the approach, defined it initially as, and prefers, housing that is *not* integrated with on-site services].

So for example, we see, as city response to homelessness, policy like the 2016 Housing Bond, dedicating $258M to create 1,300 units of permanently affordable housing, 600 for households below 30% of AMI, 300 of them Permanent Supportive Housing. Portland Housing Bureau just announced they have hit goal, (via the crucial factor of state law changing to allow funding of private projects), funding 1,424 units, with $213M of the money -- 64% new units, 36% acquisition/rehab. That averages $150k of city funding per unit, probably higher for the new units, and total subsidy per unit much higher due to partner developers bringing other subsidy funds such as LIHTC tax credits, so I'll loosely guess $300k/unit. These projects also have significant rent income from most home recipients, via income or benefits.

One issue with these projects is what housing economists call the "crowding out" effect of subsidized housing. They are generally in good locations which, given the level of housing demand, would likely otherwise have been developed as market-rate housing. While subsidized projects clearly help the city's affordability more, it should be compared to what positive affordability effect the market-rate housing might have had; and also, what alternately could be done with the subsidies.

The basic problem here is that we have a quite costly response, of creating/acquiring housing units at $100k's each, which is helping only a small part of the needy population; and we have both a large needy population existing, but steady inflow of more people into homelessness. Of course, we could say (and advocates often do say) that we just need to greatly scale up the response. But do we even know how much impact the current approach has, that we would know how much it would need scaling? I think we hardly know or agree on that at all.

Official announcements and advocacy often state or imply that 100 units of permanent supportive housing would reduce chronic homelessness by 100 households; but aggregate-effects research, such as reviewed by O'Flaherty in his recent lit review, find dramatically different results, of < 10 household reduction for every 100 new PSH units. (O'Flaherty, Brendan. "Homelessness Research: A Guide for Economists (and Friends)." Journal of Housing Economics (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2019.01.003. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open...).

In any case, when confronted with a large social project such as ending homelessness, shouldn't we ask how best, cost-effectively, and expeditiously it can be done, and not just accept a "trust us!" from the establishment in charge? Is it undignifying the homeless, to ask what housing is, how it can be done anew? I think it's more undignifying to suggest that the answers are all known, to a monumentally complex and severe problem stretching on for decades and in many places including West Coast cities, getting worse. With deep respect for the many committed, caring, expert people working in this field -- and recognizing that experienced advocates may feel embattled and inclined to circle wagons and use what rhetoric seems to work -- I think, as Giancarlo De Carlo said: architecture is too important to be left to the architects. ("Architecture's Public", 1970).

In my opinion, towards housing for all, governments should focus on first on reducing overall housing scarcity and cost factors, then on the potential for helping the least-served with a housing benefit (i.e. voucher), and then on enabling in the most cost-effective way the largest possible amount of basic housing options, in the way that least crowds out other housing production; and by combining all means, move towards an effective "right to housing." Some obvious candidates for where governments might look for lowest-subsidy-cost, adequate new dwellings are: incenting and facilitating house-sharing, of underutilized e.g. empty-nest homes; and likewise, low-cost accessory dwelling and cottage cluster housing aimed at low-income households.

The seemingly obvious "housing ends homelessness" answer, in my opinion, unfortunately tends to evade necessary analyses, and considering issues broadly and radically. It tends to promote a costly new-housing 'cure' over possibly much more cost-effective preventions or treatments, it tends to occlude the question of what counts or works as 'housing,' and how it might be done differently. Exactly contrary to hopes, it may help tend to frame the problem such that it will never be solved, at least in our time.

---

thread with Watts et al:  https://twitter.com/tmccormick/status/1189138645866799106

cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.  https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf.

Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose. 

 

Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
Presentation slides: https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf
Video:  https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ (2:40 - 33:20). 
    "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
     "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

 

Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build traditions 

  • vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm. 
  • squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house
  • Middle East - Hassan Fathy
  • anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Howard, Colin Ward, Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner
  • "Non Plan" movement in UK
  • Latin America - J.F.C. Turner "Freedom to Build"
  • vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al. 
  • UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  • "Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc. 
  • US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  • 1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.
  • mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;  emergency response vs permanent rebuilding
    J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.

the Principle of Requisite Variety
 

"Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards."

the 'Existenzminimum' tradition: 

Teige, The Minimum Dwelling (1932). 
CIAM II Congress, 1929. 

Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).  https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121

Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157.

Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. 

Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430.

"Just enough" - minimalism, ecology, & justice in housing

book Just Enough by Azby Brown - Edo Japan as a social/technological apex in sustainable communities. 
 

Homelessness and disaster: comparing and combining responses

In the long run, we're all homeless

Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different? 

comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe. 
 

 

Appendix -- A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

 

Appendix B: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
     
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
     
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
     
  • The Portland Experiment 
     
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 
 

 

Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
  STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles. This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.  b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;  c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.  d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing. 

   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 
 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 


Relation to other books / web resources

Tent City Urbanism book (2014): consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps possible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint? 
-> avoid redundant material.
-> consider what are natural follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary. 
    -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book. 
    -> new conceptual extensions.  

SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership. 

CPID publications / publicity

Meyer Memorial Trust materials. 

Village Coalition site.

Housing.wiki. 

STRATEGY:  establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from Village Buildings to the other partners, e.g. to HousingWiki and a possible Village Collaborative wiki. 

STRATEGY:  set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;  b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia. 

--> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials. 

 

"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.
 

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "


We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.

 

Appendix C: book proposal draft 

Questions from: "Guidelines for Submitting a Proposal to Island Press" https://islandpress.app.box.com/s/pwy70may609coa912ft4pewilzu0mtxb. 

1. General Overview: Introduce your subject and argument. Explain why your book is needed; what does it offer readersthat is new? Describe your overall approach and structure.

 

2. Table of Contents: List allchapters, along with any front matter (introductions/prefaces, etc.) and back matter (appendices/charts/references/sources lists/index, etc.). Annotate each chapter briefly.

 

3. Audience: Define your intended audience and explain why the book will appeal to them. Include well-defined groups of readers (e.g.,members of particular professions or academic fields). List the relevant associations that are most important for the audience for your book and identify those in which you are active. If your book is primarily intended for students, please describe the courses that should adopt it.

 

4. Author Information: Give a brief rundown of your occupation. Summarize your areas of expertise and explain why you are qualified to write the book. In addition, please submit a CV or resume.

 

5. Marketing Platform: Describe your professional activities and writing experience (with a focus on books, articles, blogs). Have you been interviewed by the media on a topic related to your book or do you have other experience with media outreach? What is the size of your network (contacts who could helpwith the promotion of the book)? If you give lectures or workshops, include a summary of your activities for the past year. If you have a well-developed social media network, please explain.

 

6. Competing/Comparable Titles: List any previously published titles that are similar to your book in topic, approach, or writing style (please specify which). What about your proposed book is different, timely, and important in comparison to existing print or online information on the topic? For course-adoption books, what is the primary benefit to an instructor in using your text rather than competing titles?

 

7. Production Considerations: Estimate when you plan to complete your manuscript. Estimate the manuscript’s word count and the number of photographs and other illustrations (maps, diagrams, graphs, etc.) that you plan to include. Please include sample images.

 

8. Course Materials: If your book is intended primarily for course use, please describe any ancillary material you would be willing to share (PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, study questions, charts, graphs, pictures, videos).

 

9. Writing Samples: If you have already drafted book chapters, or have writing samples that are germane to your proposed subject, please include them with the proposal.

 

10. Submission: If you are submitting files larger than 2MB(high-resolution art samples for example), please send them via a file-sharing service such as Box, Dropbox, or WeTransfer.

 

11. Is there any other information that would be helpful to us as we consider your project?
 

 

 


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  • Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. Shelter. (2nd edition, 2000). 
     
  • Kapur, Purnima. "From Ideas to Practice: 'Self-Help' in Housing From Interpretation to Application." M.S. Architecture Studies and M.C.P. thesis, MIT, 1989. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/75537.  [advisor: Nabeel Hamdi].
     
  • Karakusevic, Paul, and Abigail Batchelor. Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars. RIBA Publishing / Taylor & Francis, 2017. 
     
  • Kern, Ken. The Owner-Built Home. (Homestead Press, 1972).
     
  • Kohn, W., & Mosher, H. (Codirectors). (2007). Tent cities toolkit: A multimedia grassroots primer [DVD]. Portland, OR: Kwamba Productions. 
     
  • Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157.
     
  • Kropotkin, Peter. The Conquest of Bread. (1892). 
     
  • Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." Dwell, August 21, 2017. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. 
     
  • Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."
     
  • Loftus-Farren, Zoe (2011). "Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States." California Law Review, Vol. 99, No. 4 (August 2011), pp. 1037-1081. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1uVh5h2ApWpUkutmo224euDMyodPmQSYY.
     
  • Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/. Accessed 11 March 2019. 
     
  • MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. 
     
  • McCormick, Tim. "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book." London School of Economics, LSE Impact Blog, 17 January 2013. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/01/17/from-monograph-to-multigraph-the-distributed-book/.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2015). "How might we put affordable housing on disused & small sites in San Francisco? Medium, Nov 3, 2015. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2015). "Tiny Houses for the Homeless in San Francisco?" Medium, Nov 18, 2015. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2016). "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2016b). "Agile Housing -- a pattern language." 2016. http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart. 
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2018). "The New Urban Autonomous House." Medium, May 5, 2018. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152.
     
  • McCulloch, Heather, with Lisa Robinson (2001). "Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms." Oakland, CA: PolicyLink. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from: www.policylink.org. https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms.
    File: https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf.
     
  • Mehaffy, Michael M. (2019). A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. Sustasis Press, forthcoming 2019. http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html.
     
  • Mingoya, Catherine. (2015). “Building Together. Tiny House Villages for the Homeless: A Comparative Case Study.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf.
     
  • Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." https://mchg.ca/publications/
     
  • Mitchell, Ryan. Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet. (2014).
     
  • Monahan, Rachel (2017). "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply."  [on Rob Justus / Home First Development].  Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.  https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. 
     
  • Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. Willamette Week, 14 February 2018. https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/.
     
  • Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development.  July 2008. http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf. 
  • Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. 10.15760/etd.36.
     
  • Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. 
     
  • Murphy, M. (2014). “Tiny Houses as Appropriate Technology.” Communities, No. 165, Winter 2014: Fellowship International Community.
     
  • National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty (2017). "Tent City, USA: The Growth of America’s Homeless Encampments and How Communities are Responding." December 2017. https://nlchp.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Tent_City_USA_2017.pdf.
     
  • O'Connor, Charles James, et al (1913). San Francisco Relief Survey; the organization and methods of relief used after the earthquake and fire of April 18, 1906.  New York: Survey Associates, 1913.. https://archive.org/details/sanfranciscoreli00oconrich/page/n8.
     
  • O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). "Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers." Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317. https://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/OQ_JHR00PB.pdf.
     
  • Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015. https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html.
         "Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."
     
  • Pacheco, Antonio. "MADWORKSHOP’s Homeless Studio at USC delves into rapid rehousing prototype design." The Architect's Newspaper, March 30, 2017. https://archpaper.com/2017/03/madworkshop-homeless-studio-usc/.
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio (2006) "Building to Learn/Learning to Build" [Collaboration Between a Mexican Squatter Community and American Architecture Students]. Oz: Vol. 28. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5853.1427. 
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio, & Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum (2004). Studio at large: Architecture in Service of Global Communities. Seattle, Wash: University of Washington Press.
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio, and Vikramaditya Prakash. "Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." Architecture Talk (podcast hosted by Prakash).  March 13, 2019. https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39.
     
  • Palmeri, Jordan. (2012). “Small Homes: Benefits, Trends and Policies”. As presented by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
    Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1. 
     
  • Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by  KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021
     
  • Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
    Presentation slides: https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf
    Video:  https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ (2:40 - 33:20). 
        "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
         "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
    as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

     
  • Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia. European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 11, No. 2, December 2017. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf.
        "Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose."
     
  • Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016. 
    https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c.
     
  • Parvin, Alastair. "Development without debt: Re-designing the way we invest in housing." Nesta.org.uk, 27 January 2017. https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/
    Finance the homes separately from the land:
    One of the most confusing (and dumb) characteristics of the ‘current trader’ model is that it bundles the cost of the land into the cost of development. By financing the home (a consumer durable) separately from the land (a licensed property asset), in many cases it is possible to massively improve affordability. This might include leasing the land rather than selling it (arguably far more responsible in the case of publicly-owned land), deferring purchase over time, or collective purchase of the land. For example, a neighbourhood development company can purchase the land, represent a more appealing prospect to investors, because the risk of defaulting is spread over the whole neighbourhood. Matthew Benson of Rettie’s has proposed the use of ‘land bonds’, whereby a neighbourhood development company (for example a cooperative) could finance the cost of land by issuing 25 year bonds."
     
  • Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Affordable Land." 2018. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. 
     
  • Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 5, No. 2, December 2011. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. 
     
  • Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430.

Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718. 

 

Acknowledgements   

Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Sue Gemmell, Portland.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone. Portland activist & 2020 mayoral candidate. 
Mark Lakeman, Communitecture / City Repair Project, Portland
Margarette Leite, PSU Center for Public Interest Design
Michael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.
Julia Mollner, Carleton Hart Architecture & PSU Center for Public Interest Design
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Alastair Parvin, Open Systems Lab, London.
Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
Sherry Shultz, Springfield/Eugene MicroDwellers.
Eli Spevak, Portland Planning and Sustainability Commission.

 

 

Authors/editor bio notes

 

To Do

- review Tent City Urbanism, and references section. 
- research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven 
- villagebuildings twitter.
- VB logo?
- VB domain registration
- VB site 

 

 

Things to read next: 

(see also updated list in Tim's Workflowy)