Village Buildings

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POD Initiative

Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals). by Tim McCormick. 
Alternate titles:
Revillaging the World;
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.

This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 



Introduction / background

Prefatory quote ideas

Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing
J.F.C. Turner 
Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview. 
John Ruskin
William Morris
Jack Tafari 
John Brinckerhoff Jackson

"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency." 
- Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946. 


Foreword / Preface ideas

Sergio Palleroni
Todd Ferry 
Andrew Heben

Project goals 

a) provide a sequel to and expansion of Tent City Urbanism (2014):

  • provide update on developments since 2014. 
  • document POD Iniative as a land-mark shelter-design program. 
  • broaden historical/theoretical context - eg developing-economy, self-build, housing as a verb, pedagogical, social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!) perspective. 
  • offer as context a broad taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches

b) help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible, the work of housing innovators such as:

c) help create knowledge-sharing network: with

see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network. 


Essay/article ideas:

(sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):

The best vs the good, and defining "Housing First" in homelessness response

The problem with knowing the solution to homelessness. 

Housing is the solution, but what is housing? 

cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.

Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose. 



Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
Presentation slides:
Video: (2:40 - 33:20). 
    "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
     "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."


Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build traditions 

  • vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm. 
  • squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house
  • Middle East - Hassan Fathy
  • anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Howard, Colin Ward, Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner
  • "Non Plan" movement in UK
  • Latin America - J.F.C. Turner "Freedom to Build"
  • vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al. 
  • UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  • "Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc. 
  • US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  • 1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.
  • mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;  emergency response vs permanent rebuilding
    J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.

"Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards."

the 'Existenzminimum' tradition: 

Teige, The Minimum Dwelling (1932). 
CIAM II Congress, 1929. 

Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).

Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).

Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." 

Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?"

How is homelessness not a catastrophe? distinguishing, comparing and combining the responses

In the long run, we're all homeless

Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different? 

comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe. 


Background: utopian state, colonies, communes, planning 


Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan


Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform



Early villages for the homeless

Dome Village, Los Angeles


Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles].


Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

Dignity Village's [web] site:

See article: Dignity Village

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too

Right 2 Survive organization - Ibraham Mubarak. 


Portland's food-cart culture - re-normalizing informal & interim use of urban space 

(discussed by Palleroni & Cruz on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]). 


Hazelnut Grove, the Village Coalition, and POD Initiative 

Hazelnut Grove

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 


Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design

See article: Center for Public Interest Design.

Connecting global practices of informal, community-based, participatory development

Teddy Cruz interview

 from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]:

"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.

"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations. 

"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words, the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 


Village Coalition & POD Initiative

Cross-sector coalition and design, to convene deep community response

See article: Village Coalition

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • Tim's photo album on POD Initiative: [1]. 
  • Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

Kenton Women's and later villages

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village

Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village

Tim's photo album on Agape Village: [1].

Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:  how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why. 

Permanent villages

Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans

See also:  Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington. 


Portland grant- and developer-funded housing experiments

Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiencies program.

New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects, Inc

See article:  LISAH

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village

Meyer Trust - Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019


Rob Justus - Home First low-cost affordable housing


Guerilla Development - Jolene's First Cousin project

See article: Jolene's First Cousin


Co-op/condo villages - Orange Splot, etc

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

Mason Street Townhomes


bottom-up in the Community Development tradition 

DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 

Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. 

Immerwahr, Daniel (2018).  Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 

O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers.
Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317.

Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019]. 

Simon, William H. (2002).  The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11

Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. 

Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. 


Future paths

Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support

Colin Ward. Talking Houses (1975). 
  "Dweller control" in public housing.  

from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]: Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars:

"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.
    Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."
"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision." 

CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):
emergence in 1960s. 

Housing vouchers and income support. 


Village cluster housing

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program? 

City of Milwaukie study

[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.]. 

a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.

Created [mostly] by community capital, vs financial capital.

Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages? 

anticipating a long-term increase in disaster and climate-change related disruption in US and globally. 

Help provide models and learning for the US and globally. 

Bridging emergency/immediate response with long-term adaptation and resettlement. (a long-running thorny problem, at least since the previous age of mass dislocation, during/after WWII). 

Note that the Pacific Northwest already receives a large in-migration from US (especially to Portland, Seattle, & Oregon coast), and is predicted to increasingly do so from climate-change effects upon other parts of the US that likely will make SW & SE of US increasingly uninhabitable or agriculturally viable. 

Oregon could experience large refugee / resettler influxes from California due to earthquake or wildfire impacts.

Oregon could also at any time be hit by "the Big One" offshore Cascadia Fault earthquake which will destroy coastal areas and devastate much of the infrastructure of western Oregon. Up to 100,000s of Oregon could be displaced, have uninhabitable homes, be without utility water, sewage, gas, electricity for months to years. 


Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use

see: PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes project


Constructing a legal right to housing

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).
Available at:

"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order. 

Note particularly:  
III. Occupying the American Right to Housing
   A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land 
   B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction
   C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless


Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

1) temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness. 
[shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 

2) We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 
Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

3) If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

4) when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs? 

5) affordability and housing standards 

6) issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

7) stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 

8) US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

9) housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. 

10) long-term cost issues
   -- maintainability, durability
   -- community and dweller acceptance.

11) Critique of "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts as potentially serving interests of inequality and exploitation: e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo. 

Appendix: A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

Land-use reform

(including building regulations reform)


Mobility improvement

Financial reform & innovation

Tax preferences/incentives for affordable & non-profit housing.

Bonding methods.

Social Impact Bonds.

Cooperative financing/development.  (cf German regulations facilitating). 


Non-profit & Public housing; use of public land.

[Bond and General funding - local/state. i.e., just tax ourselves more. (the "public option")].


Vouchers & direct subsidy: local, state, and/or Federal

a 'choice' strategy.  

[Bond and General funding - local/state. i.e., just tax ourselves more. (the "public option")]

Mixed-income housing

public or private developed, e.g. Vanport, Headwaters, Aloha Park

Rent regulation

Oregon passes nation's 1st statewide rent control in 2019.    

Inclusionary housing

mandated, incented, or purchased. Example of Pearl District.     


Lot division & 'condoization'

Portland lot-division / narrow lots program. 

Eli Spevak / Orange Splot projects; Pocket Neighborhoods, Villages: Ross Chapin, Cully Grove, SquareOne.


Sharing / Congregate housing

SRO, co-housing, co-living.


Cooperative housing

Emerald Village.


Accessory Dwellings

Self-, startup-, or public-financed. "Backdoor revolution."


Community Land Trusts, deed restrictions, limited/shared equity 

Cully Land Trust, Emerald Village 


Privately-developed affordable housing

built w/out subsidy. Guerrilla Development, Justus / Home First.


Interim, mobile, or redeployable housing

POD, PAD Initiatives, Opportunity Village, OR Tiny House Code.


Alternative design & technologies

modular, manufactured, pre-fab, etc. 


Informal, self-build, & incremental housing


Abundant, or "Naturally occurring affordable" housing

Housing for all.


Appendix: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
  • The Portland Experiment 
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 


Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
  STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles. This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.  b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;  c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.  d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing. 

   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 

Relation to other books / web resources

Tent City Urbanism book (2014): consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps possible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint? 
-> avoid redundant material.
-> consider what are natural follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary. 
    -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book. 
    -> new conceptual extensions.  

SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership. 

CPID publications / publicity

Meyer Memorial Trust materials. 

Village Coalition site. 

STRATEGY:  establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from Village Buildings to the other partners, e.g. to HousingWiki and a possible Village Collaborative wiki. 

STRATEGY:  set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;  b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia. 

--> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials. 


"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "

We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.


  • Abarbanel, Sara, and Cassandra Bayer, Paloma Corcuera, Nancy Stetson (Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley) [2016]. "Making a Tiny Deal Out of It: A Feasibility Study of Tiny Home Villages to Increase Affordable Housing in Lane County, Oregon." A Report for United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Portland, Oregon Field Office. May 2016.
  • Abrams, Charles. Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World. (1964). 
  • Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams.    
    ___. The Oregon Experiment, 1975.
    ___. A Pattern Language, 1977
    ___. The Timeless Way of Building, 1979
  • Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at:
  • Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall"  ["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]., January 23, 2019. 
  • Anson, April. (2014). The World in my Backyard”: Romanticization, Thoreauvian Rhetoric, and Constructive Confrontation in the Tiny House Movement”. Research in Urban Sociology, 14, 289–314. [paywalled]. 
  • Aquilino, Marie, ed. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).
    ISBN 9781935202479[1].
       Part 1. Architecture after disaster : 
    Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --
    Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --
    News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --
    From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --
       Part 2. What should governments do? : 
    When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --
    Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --
    What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --
       Part 3. Urban risk and recovery : 
    Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --
    Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --
    Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --
    Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --
    Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --
       Part 4. Environmental resilience : 
    Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --
    The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --
    Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --
    On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --
       Part 5. Teaching as strategic action : 
    Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --
    Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --
    Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --
       Part 6. Is prevention possible? : 
    More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --
    Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --
    Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --
    Afterword : 
    Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.
  • Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis. 2006.
  • Aubry, Tim, and Roberto Bernad, Ronni Greenwood. "A Multi-Country Study of the Fidelity of Housing First Programmes: Introduction." European Journal of Homelessness. Vol 12, No. 3. 
  • Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, & Jeremy Till. Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture (Routledge, 2011).  See also Spatial Agency site:
  • Bagshaw, Sally. (2014). “Building on Quixote Village: Divvy Up the Responsibility”. Published online February 25, 2014 on Sally Bagshaw's Seattle City Council site.
  • Beard, Victoria A. (2003). "Learning Radical Planning: The Power of Collective Action." Planning Theory, Vol 2, Issue 1, 2003. PDF: 
  • Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." The Seattle Times, 26 February 2016.
  • Bell, Bryan (2004). Good Deeds, Good Design: Community Service Through Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press, 2004.
  • Bell, Bryan, and Katie Wakeford, Steve Badanes (2008). Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism. Metropolis Books, 2008. 
  • Bernheimer, Lily. "The Shape of (Housing) Things to Come." Next City, Sep 30, 2019. [excerpted from book by Bernheimer, The Shaping of Us: How Everyday Spaces Structure Our Lives, Behavior, and Well-Being, 2019].  On Alastair Parvin, WikiHouse, and Citizen Sector home-building approach. 
  • Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990. 
  • Blanchard, Dave. [2012]. "Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. OPB Think Out Loud, October 3rd 2012.
  • Boden, Paul, et al (2015). House Keys Not Handcuffs. Freedom Voices, 2015.  $19. 
  • Borges, Sofia, and R. Scott Mitchell (2018). Give Me Shelter: Architecture Takes on the Homeless Crisis. ORO Editions, February 1, 2018)
    "Give Me Shelter documents the work of the MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio at the USC School of Architecture and their solutions for tackling the Los Angeles homeless crisis through design, compassion, and humanity. The book features exclusive content from leaders in the field including Michael Maltzan, Ted Hayes, Betty Chinn, Gregory Kloehn, Skid Row Housing Trust, and many more. Paired with a forward by Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, Give Me Shelter provides an in-depth look at how design can bridge the gap in services to get people off the streets and into housing sooner."
  • Brown, Emily. "Overcoming the Barriers to Micro-Housing: Tiny Houses, Big Potential." Thesis project for MCRP degree, University of Oregon, Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management, 2016.
  • Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).
  • Budnick, Nick. "The Duke of Dignity Village" [:"Ibrahim Mubarak has learned that a homeless utopia is easier to conceive than to achieve"]. Willamette Week, September 17, 2002  Updated January 24, 2017. 
  • Burman, Kara Grace. "Liminal Dwelling: Support for Street Residents, a Place of Re-integration and Transition." M.Arch thesis, Dalhousie University
    Halifax, Nova Scotia. March 2017.
  • Burt, M. R. (2003). "Chronic Homelessness: Emergence of a Public Policy." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(3) pp.1267–79.
  • Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001). 
  • Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689.  PDF:
  • Chapin, Ross. Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World. (2011). 
  • Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." Washington Unitversity Journal of Urban & Contemporary Law. 25:235-268.
  • Chomei, Kamo, et al. Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler. 
  • Community Planning Workshop (University of Oregon). "Providing for the Unhoused: A Review of Transitional Housing Strategies in Eugene." October 2015.
  • Corr, Anders. No Trespassing!: Squatting, Rent Strikes, and Land Struggles Worldwide.1999.
  • Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives." Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121.  [full text].
  • Cuny, Frederick C. (1983). Disasters and Development. 1983. Full text:
  • Davies, Daniel (series creator). "Rebel Architecture." Al Jazeera English, 2014-16. ["A six-part [or more?] documentary series profiling architects who are using design as a form of activism and resistance to tackle the world's urban, environmental and social crises"].
  • Davis, Ian (1978). Shelter After Disaster
  • Davis, Sam (2014). Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works. University of California Press (2004).
    "Written by an architect who has been designing and building affordable housing for thirty years, this well-illustrated book is both a call to create well-designed places for the homeless and a review of innovative and successful building designs that now serve diverse communities across the United States. Sam Davis argues for safe and functional architectural designs and programs that symbolically reintegrate the homeless into society in buildings that offer beauty, security, and hope to those most in need."
  • De Carlo, Giancarlo. "An Architecture of Participation." 1972. [a version is also in Perspecta, 17 (1980), 74-79].
  • De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in Architecture and Participation, ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press / Taylor & Francis, 2007), pp. 3-22.

DeFilippis, James. Unmaking Goliath: Community Control in the Face of Global Capital (2003).  (Multcolib has ebook). 


DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 


Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less. 2018. 

Silverman, R. M. (2005). Caught in the Middle: Community Development Corporations (CDCs) and the Conflict between Grassroots and Instrumental Forms of Citizen Participation. Journal of the Community Development Society, 36 (2): 35-51. 
  "This article examines the role of citizen participation in community development corporations (CDC). It is argued that CDCs are caught between two distinct forms of participation: instrumental participation that focuses on activities that support project and program activities of CDCs, and grassroots participation that focuses on expanding the role of citizens in local decision-making processes. A continuum based on these two forms of citizen participation is introduced. It is suggested that CDCs are often in the middle of the continuum where they must balance pressures to expand the scope of grassroots participation against the need to use citizen participation techniques to facilitate project and program implementation. The article is based on a series of in-depth interviews with the executive directors of CDCs in Detroit, Michigan. Recommendations growing out of the research focus on how the tendency toward conflicts between the instrumental goals of CDCs and the longstanding value of grassroots activism can be managed better."


Simon, William H. (2002).  The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11

  • Smith, Doug (2019). "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. 
  • Smock, Kristina (2010). "An Evaluation of Dignity Village." Prepared by Kristina Smock Consulting for the Portland Housing Bureau. February 2010. [1].
  • Sparks, Tony (2009). As Much Like Home as Possible: Geographies of Homelessness and Citizenship in Seattle’s Tent City 3 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2009).
  • Spevak, Eli, and Madeline Kovacs, Orange Splot LLC. "Character-Compatible, Space-Efficient Housing Options for Single-Dwelling Neighborhoods." Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. May 2016.
    Cottage Clusters
    Internal Home Divisions
    Corner Duplexes
    Accessory Dwelling Units
  • SquareOne Villages (2019). "1 Million Month Challenge: Affordable Together." post, February 28, 2019.  [discusses their award of grant from the Meyer Trust's Million Month Challenge, and includes most of their grant proposal "Affordable Together: scaling a community-based approach to housing"; outline plans to develop Community Land Trust - Limited-Equity Co-op (CLT-LEV) model; describes planned outreach efforts including Toolbox and new Village Framework Plan planning tool].
  • Stevens, Robert William, and Ted Swisher, eds. (1986). Community Self-help Housing Manual: Partnership in Action. Intermediate Technology Development Group of North America, 1986.

Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. 


Stohr, Kate, Cameron Sinclair, and Architecture for Humanity (2012). Design Like You Give a Damn {2}: Building Change from the Ground Up. Abrams, 2012. 




Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Sue Gemmell.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone.
Margarette Leite, Center for Public Interest Design
MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Kol Peterson -, etc, Portland.


Authors/editor bio notes


To Do

- review Tent City Urbanism, and references section. 
- research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven 
- villagebuildings twitter.
- VB logo?
- VB domain registration
- VB site 


Things to read next: 

(see also updated list in Tim's Workflowy)