Difference between revisions of "Village Buildings"

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Connecting global practices of informal,&nbsp;community-based, participatory development<br/> &nbsp;
 
Connecting global practices of informal,&nbsp;community-based, participatory development<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== Teddy Cruz interview ===
+
Teddy Cruz interview
  
 
&nbsp;from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID,&nbsp;on ''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]:
 
&nbsp;from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID,&nbsp;on ''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]:
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house plans<br/> <br/> See also:&nbsp; Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington.&nbsp;
 
house plans<br/> <br/> See also:&nbsp; Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington.&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
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== Cass Community Social Services - Tiny Homes Detroit ==
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 +
Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit." &nbsp;https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/. &nbsp;Accessed 19 November 2019.&nbsp;
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&nbsp;
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== Veterans' Villages - Canada, Wisconsin ==
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
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*Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689. &nbsp;PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689. &nbsp;PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit." &nbsp;https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/. &nbsp;Accessed 19 November 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." ''Washington&nbsp;Unitversity Journal of&nbsp;Urban & Contemporary Law''. 25:235-268. [http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." ''Washington&nbsp;Unitversity Journal of&nbsp;Urban & Contemporary Law''. 25:235-268. [http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw].<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village. [https://dignityvillage.org/ Dignityvillage.org].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village. [https://dignityvillage.org/ Dignityvillage.org].<br/> &nbsp;  
*Dignity Village (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 & Beyond: Outline Strategies for a Sustainable Future." Prepared by Dignity Village residents and supporters for the City of Portland and its homeless residents. &nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html].
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*Dignity Village (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 & Beyond: Outline Strategies for a Sustainable Future." Prepared by Dignity Village residents and supporters for the City of Portland and its homeless residents. &nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html https://drive.google.com/open?id=1l5fo_SLimhc54znyTuf1I0YECo3sP21B.]<br/> &nbsp;  
*&nbsp;  
+
*Dignity Village Council. "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-." (2003?).&nbsp;<br/> [prepared in collaboration with Supporters including The City Repair Project].&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Dignity Village Council. "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-." (2003?).&nbsp;<br/> [prepared in collaboration with Supporters including The City Repair Project].&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
 
*Dignity Village Site Selection Committee, and Larson Legacy Foundation. "Dignity Village: Successes at Sunderland". &nbsp;June 5, 2002. [http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf. http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village Site Selection Committee, and Larson Legacy Foundation. "Dignity Village: Successes at Sunderland". &nbsp;June 5, 2002. [http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf. http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." ''Dwell'', August 21, 2017. [https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." ''Dwell'', August 21, 2017. [https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."<br/> &nbsp;  
*Loftus-Farren Z. (2011). “Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States”. ''California Law Review''. 99, no. 4: 1037-1082.<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Loftus-Farren, Zoe (2011). "Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States." ''California Law Review'', Vol. 99, No. 4 (August 2011), pp. 1037-1081. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1uVh5h2ApWpUkutmo224euDMyodPmQSYY.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). [http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). [http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  

Revision as of 16:29, 15 November 2019

Village Buildings cover mockup 1

Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals). by Tim McCormick. 
Alternate titles:
Revillaging the World;
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.

This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 


 

Contents

Introduction / background

Prefatory quote ideas

Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing
J.F.C. Turner 
Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview. 
John Ruskin
William Morris
Jack Tafari 
John Brinckerhoff Jackson

"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency." 
- Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946. 

"In the broadest sense, the goal of urban planning is to facilitate communication." 
     - Carl Abbott, PhD, Professor & Chair, College of Planning & Public Health, Portland State University. (ca 2004). Used as prefatory quote in 2004 "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-" by Dignity Village Council and City Repair Project. 

 "I want a left that can operate on all scales."
     - Daniel Immerwarh, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015).

"Distrust all claims for 'one true way.'"
    Unix "Rule of Diversity", in e.g. E.S. Raymond, The Art of Unix Programming, 2003. 

"We all live in a state of ambitious poverty." ("Hic vivimus ambitiosa paupertate omnes").
   -Juvenal‬, Satires

"Pray to God, but row towards shore." 
     - Russian proverb.

 

Foreword / Preface ideas

Andrew Heben
Mark Lakeman
Sergio Palleroni
Todd Ferry 

Project goals 

Provide a successor to Tent City Urbanism (2014)

help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible, the work of housing innovators such as:

Build historical, global, and critical perspectives

  • developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.
  • Community Development [Housing] - CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s. ,  pedagogical & social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!) perspectives. 
  • critiques of self-build and community development.  
  • surveying and responding to common objections / counterarguments. (anti-pattern language).
  • broad taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches. (see Appendix).

Suggest future paths - cluster housing, network villages, eco/resilient villages


Expanded project: help build knowledge/organizing network between allied organizations

e.g. with Village Collaborative, Village Coalition (Portland), LIHI (Seattle). 

Book as network: see also: "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book" [McCormick 2013]. 

See also Ward Cunningham's work on Federated Wiki, use on A Pattern Language for Growing Regions (Mehaffy et al).  

Network participants: 

  • Village Collaborative
  • Center for Public Interest Design
  • Meyer Trust
  • Housing.wiki
  • A Pattern Language for Growing Regions
  • Wikipedia
  • Spatial Agency 
  • etc
  • see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network, also built on MediaWiki platform as is HousingWiki. 

 

Essay/article ideas:

(which could become or be adapted into a book chapter)

sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):


A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

(see Appendix)

The best vs the good, and defining "Housing First" in homelessness response

The problem with knowing the solution to homelessness. 

Housing Solutionism

 

Housing is the solution, but what is housing? 
 

cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.  https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf.

Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose. 

 

Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
Presentation slides: https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf
Video:  https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ (2:40 - 33:20). 
    "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
     "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

 

Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build traditions 

  • vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm. 
  • squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house
  • Middle East - Hassan Fathy
  • anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Howard, Colin Ward, Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner
  • "Non Plan" movement in UK
  • Latin America - J.F.C. Turner "Freedom to Build"
  • vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al. 
  • UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  • "Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc. 
  • US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  • 1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.
  • mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;  emergency response vs permanent rebuilding
    J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.

the Principle of Requisite Variety

"Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards."

the 'Existenzminimum' tradition: 

Teige, The Minimum Dwelling (1932). 
CIAM II Congress, 1929. 

Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).  https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121

Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157.

Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. 

Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430.

"Just enough" - minimalism, ecology, & justice in housing

book Just Enough by Azby Brown - Edo Japan as a social/technological apex in sustainable communities. 
 

Homelessness and disaster: distinguishing, comparing, combining responses

In the long run, we're all homeless

Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different? 

comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe. 
 

 

Background: utopian state, colonies, communes, planning 

 

Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan

 

Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform
 

 

 

Early villages for the homeless

Dome Village, Los Angeles

1993-2006. 

Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html

 

 

Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

Dignity Village's [web] site: https://dignityvillage.org

See article: Dignity Village
 

References

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village
 

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too

Right 2 Survive organization - Ibraham Mubarak. 

 

Portland's food-cart culture - re-normalizing informal & interim use of urban space 

(discussed by Palleroni & Cruz on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]). 

 

Hazelnut Grove, the Village Coalition, and POD Initiative 

Hazelnut Grove

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 

 

Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design

See article: Center for Public Interest Design.

Connecting global practices of informal, community-based, participatory development
 

Teddy Cruz interview

 from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]:

"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.

"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations. 

"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words, the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 

 

Village Coalition & POD Initiative

Cross-sector coalition and design, to convene deep community response

See article: Village Coalition

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • Tim's photo album on POD Initiative: [1]. 
  • Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

Kenton Women's and later villages

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village
 

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village


Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village

Tim's photo album on Agape Village: [1].


Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:  how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why. 


Permanent villages


Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans
 

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans

See also:  Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington. 

 

Cass Community Social Services - Tiny Homes Detroit

Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit."  https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/.  Accessed 19 November 2019. 

 

Veterans' Villages - Canada, Wisconsin

 

Portland grant- and developer-funded housing experiments

Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiencies program.

New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects, Inc

See article:  LISAH

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village
 

Meyer Trust - Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019

 

Rob Justus - Home First low-cost affordable housing

 

Guerilla Development - Jolene's First Cousin project

See article: Jolene's First Cousin

 

Co-op/condo villages - Orange Splot, etc

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

Mason Street Townhomes

 

'bottom-up' and the Community Development tradition 

DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 

Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. 

Immerwahr, Daniel (2018).  Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 

O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers.
Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317. https://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/OQ_JHR00PB.pdf.

Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019].  https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. 

Simon, William H. (2002).  The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11

Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. 
10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x

Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. 
 

 

Future paths

Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support

Colin Ward. Talking Houses (1975). 
  "Dweller control" in public housing.  

from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]: Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars:

"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.
    Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."
"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision." 


CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):
emergence in 1960s. 

Housing vouchers and income support. 

 

Village cluster housing

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program? 

City of Milwaukie study

[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.]. 

a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.

Created [mostly] by community capital, vs financial capital.
 

Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages? 

anticipating a long-term increase in disaster and climate-change related disruption in US and globally. 

Help provide models and learning for the US and globally. 

Bridging emergency/immediate response with long-term adaptation and resettlement. (a long-running thorny problem, at least since the previous age of mass dislocation, during/after WWII). 

Note that the Pacific Northwest already receives a large in-migration from US (especially to Portland, Seattle, & Oregon coast), and is predicted to increasingly do so from climate-change effects upon other parts of the US that likely will make SW & SE of US increasingly uninhabitable or agriculturally viable. 

Oregon could experience large refugee / resettler influxes from California due to earthquake or wildfire impacts.

Oregon could also at any time be hit by "the Big One" offshore Cascadia Fault earthquake which will destroy coastal areas and devastate much of the infrastructure of western Oregon. Up to 100,000s of Oregon could be displaced, have uninhabitable homes, be without utility water, sewage, gas, electricity for months to years. 

 

Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use

see: PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes project

 

"Citizen Sector" (Alastair Parvin et al): digital distributed, mass self-build housing. 

see: Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016. 
https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c.
 

Constructing a legal right to housing

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).
Available at: https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766.

"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order. 

Note particularly:  
III. Occupying the American Right to Housing
   A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land 
   B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction
   C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless

 

Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

we shouldn't lower housing standards, we should provide enough funding

tiny houses / villages don't provide the needed density for urban areas

 

temporary or substandard housing/shelter isn't and distracts from the real solution, housing

'temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.  [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 
 

'Self build' and lower standards facilitate exploitation, inequality, defunding

e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo's critique of CIAM and "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts, in "Architecture's Public's," as serving interests of inequality and exploitation.

We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 

If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

 

Different housing for the poor and unhoused makes it stigmatized & unintegrated

Stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 

US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

Lower cost/standard housing may be more costly in long run

Lower building costs help developers, but don't lower prices

housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

 

Appendix A: A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

 

Appendix B: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
     
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
     
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
     
  • The Portland Experiment 
     
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 
 

 

Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
  STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles. This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.  b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;  c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.  d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing. 

   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 
 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 


Relation to other books / web resources

Tent City Urbanism book (2014): consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps possible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint? 
-> avoid redundant material.
-> consider what are natural follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary. 
    -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book. 
    -> new conceptual extensions.  

SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership. 

CPID publications / publicity

Meyer Memorial Trust materials. 

Village Coalition site.

Housing.wiki. 

STRATEGY:  establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from Village Buildings to the other partners, e.g. to HousingWiki and a possible Village Collaborative wiki. 

STRATEGY:  set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;  b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia. 

--> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials. 

 

"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.
 

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "


We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.

 

Appendix C: book proposal draft 

Questions from: "Guidelines for Submitting a Proposal to Island Press" https://islandpress.app.box.com/s/pwy70may609coa912ft4pewilzu0mtxb. 

1. General Overview: Introduce your subject and argument. Explain why your book is needed; what does it offer readersthat is new? Describe your overall approach and structure.

 

2. Table of Contents: List allchapters, along with any front matter (introductions/prefaces, etc.) and back matter (appendices/charts/references/sources lists/index, etc.). Annotate each chapter briefly.

 

3. Audience: Define your intended audience and explain why the book will appeal to them. Include well-defined groups of readers (e.g.,members of particular professions or academic fields). List the relevant associations that are most important for the audience for your book and identify those in which you are active. If your book is primarily intended for students, please describe the courses that should adopt it.

 

4. Author Information: Give a brief rundown of your occupation. Summarize your areas of expertise and explain why you are qualified to write the book. In addition, please submit a CV or resume.

 

5. Marketing Platform: Describe your professional activities and writing experience (with a focus on books, articles, blogs). Have you been interviewed by the media on a topic related to your book or do you have other experience with media outreach? What is the size of your network (contacts who could helpwith the promotion of the book)? If you give lectures or workshops, include a summary of your activities for the past year. If you have a well-developed social media network, please explain.

 

6. Competing/Comparable Titles: List any previously published titles that are similar to your book in topic, approach, or writing style (please specify which). What about your proposed book is different, timely, and important in comparison to existing print or online information on the topic? For course-adoption books, what is the primary benefit to an instructor in using your text rather than competing titles?

 

7. Production Considerations: Estimate when you plan to complete your manuscript. Estimate the manuscript’s word count and the number of photographs and other illustrations (maps, diagrams, graphs, etc.) that you plan to include. Please include sample images.

 

8. Course Materials: If your book is intended primarily for course use, please describe any ancillary material you would be willing to share (PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, study questions, charts, graphs, pictures, videos).

 

9. Writing Samples: If you have already drafted book chapters, or have writing samples that are germane to your proposed subject, please include them with the proposal.

 

10. Submission: If you are submitting files larger than 2MB(high-resolution art samples for example), please send them via a file-sharing service such as Box, Dropbox, or WeTransfer.

 

11. Is there any other information that would be helpful to us as we consider your project?
 

 

 


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  • Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. 
        "This review takes Rebuilding Communities [Vidal 1992] as a starting point to survey the community development literature, the community development field, and external environmental factors, in order to examine what has happened over the past fifteen years to shape the context in which urban community development corporations (CDCs) now operate. This paper is both a bounded literature review and an environmental scan. We identify categories of changes and influences on the community development field. We find that in the last fifteen years, the community development field has grown increasingly professionalized. Policy initiatives have also shaped the field. New evaluations of community development have been conducted and published. We now know much more about the potential and limits of CDCs than we did when the Rebuilding Communities (RC) study was launched in the late 1980s. At the same time, significant gaps in our knowledge of the community development field remain. In particular, there has been insufficient study of how the changes in this context have affected the work that CDCs do."
     
  • Gabriele, Kristen Elizabeth [2014]. "Design & Management Strategies for Micro-housing Units in Transitional Villages for the Homeless: an Exploration of Prototypes at Opportunity Village Eugene." M.Arch A thesis for SUNY Buffalo, 1 September 2014.  https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing. 
       "The findings from this study provide design alternatives that can lead to improved user satisfaction in micro-housing prototypes." 
     
  • Gans. Herbert J. (1972). "The Positive Functions of Poverty." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 2. (Sep., 1972), pp. 275-289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/225324. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1WKowlKxe89TBf4HWMCgipAY_-c9a_YLR.
         "Abstract: Mertonian functional analysis is applied to explain the persistence of poverty, and fifteen functions which poverty and the poor perform for the rest of American society, particularly the affluent, are identified and described. Functional alternatives which would substitute for these functions and make poverty unnecessary are suggested, but the most important alternatives are themselves dysfunctional for the affluent, since they require some redistribution of income and power. A functional analysis of poverty thus comes to many of the same conclusions as radical sociological analysis, demonstrating anew Merton's assertion that functionalism need not be conservative in ideological outlook or implication."
     
  • Grabow, Stephen, and Allen Heskin. "Foundations for a Radical Concept of Planning." Journal of the American Institute of Planning, vol. 39, no. 2, 1973:106-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367308977664. 
    PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu.
     
  • Glaser, Gary. Justiceville – L.A.'s Homeless City (film recording) 1987. https://www.cctv.org/watch-tv/programs/justiceville-%E2%80%93-las-homeless-city.
     
  • Gragg, Randy. "Guerrilla City." Architecture, May 2002. 
    https://saveferalhumanhabitat.wordpress.com/2002/12/27/guerrilla-city-a-homeless-settlement-in-portland-has-its-own-government-urban-plan-and-skyline/
        “In its ‘permasite’ configuration, Dignity Village could potentially be a working model for a new type of truly sustainable, high density and mixed use, organically developing urban village model. If developed according to Dignity Villages wishes, the village would enhance Portland’s reputation as being the most green city in America. ... Dignity Village hopes to become a demonstration site for solar and wind power, permaculture, environmental restoration, stormwater and greywater reuse and innovative use of recycled materials and alternative building techniques for construction.”
     
  • Harvey, David (1999). "Frontiers of insurgent planning" (1999). 
     
  • Harvey, David. Spaces of Hope (2000). https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2017/SOC593/um/Harvey_2000_Spaces_of_Hope.pdf.
     
  • Hayden, Dolores. Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing, and Family Life. (??)
     
  • Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html. Accessed 18 October 2019. 
     
  • Hays, R. A. (2002). "Habitat for Humanity: Building Social Capital through Faith Based Service." Journal of Urban Affairs, 24(3), 247–269. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9906.00126. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Mh7nuyJWzlbJ2nSj7A0o8-6ZQBKTP3cE. 
     
  • Heben, Andrew (2011). “Inside Tent Cities,” Planning Magazine, 2011. 
     
  • ___. (2012). “From Camp to Village.” Communities Magazine, 2012.
     
  • ___. (2013). "Opportunity Village: for and by the homeless.” The Global Urbanist, 2013. 
     
  • ___. (2014b). "It Takes a Village" Tiny House Magazine, 2014.
     
  • ___. (2014a). Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages. (2014).
     
  • ____. "2014 in Review: A Pivotal Year for Tiny House Villages." Tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2014. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html.
     
  • ____. "2015 in Review: Tiny House Villages progress as traditional housing options continue to fall short." tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2015. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html. 
     
  • Herring, Chris. "The New Logics of Homeless Seclusion:Homeless Encampments in America's West Coast Cities." City & Community 13.4 (2014): 285-309. Web. 20 Feb. 2017. https://www.academia.edu/15061831/The_New_Logics_of_Homeless_Seclusion_Homeless_Encampments_in_America_s_West_Coast_Cities_2014_City_and_Community_Vol_13_No._4_285-309.
    https://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/journals/CC/Dec14CCFeature.pdf.
     
  • Herring, Chris (2015). "Tent City, America." Places Journal, December, 2015. https://placesjournal.org/article/tent-city-america/.  https://doi.org/10.22269/151214.
     
  • Holtzman, Ben.  "When the Homeless Took Over." ["As the homeless and affordable housing crises become a focus on local and national campaigns, we must remember the rich history and critical contributions of homeless organizers."] Shelterforce, October 11, 2019
    https://shelterforce.org/2019/10/11/when-the-homeless-took-over/.
     
  • Immerwahr, Daniel (2018). Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 
     
  • Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." in Discovering the Vernacular Landscape (1984). 
     
  • Jones, Lucy. The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them). 2018. 
     
  • Kahn, Lloyd. Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter (2012). 
     
  • Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. Shelter. (2nd edition, 2000). 
     
  • Kapur, Purnima. "From Ideas to Practice: 'Self-Help' in Housing From Interpretation to Application." M.S. Architecture Studies and M.C.P. thesis, MIT, 1989. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/75537.  [advisor: Nabeel Hamdi].
     
  • Karakusevic, Paul, and Abigail Batchelor. Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars. RIBA Publishing / Taylor & Francis, 2017. 
     
  • Kern, Ken. The Owner-Built Home. (Homestead Press, 1972).
     
  • Kohn, W., & Mosher, H. (Codirectors). (2007). Tent cities toolkit: A multimedia grassroots primer [DVD]. Portland, OR: Kwamba Productions. 
     
  • Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157.
     
  • Kropotkin, Peter. The Conquest of Bread. (1892). 
     
  • Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." Dwell, August 21, 2017. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. 
     
  • Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."
     
  • Loftus-Farren, Zoe (2011). "Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States." California Law Review, Vol. 99, No. 4 (August 2011), pp. 1037-1081. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1uVh5h2ApWpUkutmo224euDMyodPmQSYY.
     
  • Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/. Accessed 11 March 2019. 
     
  • MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. 
     
  • McCormick, Tim. "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book." London School of Economics, LSE Impact Blog, 17 January 2013. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/01/17/from-monograph-to-multigraph-the-distributed-book/.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2015). "How might we put affordable housing on disused & small sites in San Francisco? Medium, Nov 3, 2015. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2015). "Tiny Houses for the Homeless in San Francisco?" Medium, Nov 18, 2015. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2016). "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper.
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2016b). "Agile Housing -- a pattern language." 2016. http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart. 
     
  • McCormick, Tim (2018). "The New Urban Autonomous House." Medium, May 5, 2018. https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152.
     
  • McCulloch, Heather, with Lisa Robinson (2001). "Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms." Oakland, CA: PolicyLink. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from: www.policylink.org. https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms.
    File: https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf.
     
  • Mehaffy, Michael M. (2019). A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. Sustasis Press, forthcoming 2019. http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html.
     
  • Mingoya, Catherine. (2015). “Building Together. Tiny House Villages for the Homeless: A Comparative Case Study.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf.
     
  • Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." https://mchg.ca/publications/
     
  • Mitchell, Ryan. Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet. (2014).
     
  • Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply."  [on Rob Justus / Home First Development].  Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.  https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. 
     
  • Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development.  July 2008. http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf. 
     
  • Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. 10.15760/etd.36.
     
  • Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. 
     
  • Murphy, M. (2014). “Tiny Houses as Appropriate Technology.” Communities, No. 165, Winter 2014: Fellowship International Community.
     
  • National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty (2017). "Tent City, USA: The Growth of America’s Homeless Encampments and How Communities are Responding." December 2017. https://nlchp.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Tent_City_USA_2017.pdf.
     
  • O'Connor, Charles James, et al (1913). San Francisco Relief Survey; the organization and methods of relief used after the earthquake and fire of April 18, 1906.  New York: Survey Associates, 1913.. https://archive.org/details/sanfranciscoreli00oconrich/page/n8.
     
  • O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). "Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers." Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317. https://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/OQ_JHR00PB.pdf.
     
  • Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015. https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html.
         "Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."
     
  • Pacheco, Antonio. "MADWORKSHOP’s Homeless Studio at USC delves into rapid rehousing prototype design." The Architect's Newspaper, March 30, 2017. https://archpaper.com/2017/03/madworkshop-homeless-studio-usc/.
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio (2006) "Building to Learn/Learning to Build" [Collaboration Between a Mexican Squatter Community and American Architecture Students]. Oz: Vol. 28. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5853.1427. 
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio, & Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum (2004). Studio at large: Architecture in Service of Global Communities. Seattle, Wash: University of Washington Press.
     
  • Palleroni, Sergio, and Vikramaditya Prakash. "Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." Architecture Talk (podcast hosted by Prakash).  March 13, 2019. https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39.
     
  • Palmeri, Jordan. (2012). “Small Homes: Benefits, Trends and Policies”. As presented by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
    Retrieved from: http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1. 
     
  • Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by  KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021
     
  • Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
    Presentation slides: https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf
    Video:  https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ (2:40 - 33:20). 
        "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
         "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
    as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

     
  • Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia. European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 11, No. 2, December 2017. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf.
        "Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose."
     
  • Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016. 
    https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c.
     
  • Parvin, Alastair. "Development without debt: Re-designing the way we invest in housing." Nesta.org.uk, 27 January 2017. https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/
    Finance the homes separately from the land:
    One of the most confusing (and dumb) characteristics of the ‘current trader’ model is that it bundles the cost of the land into the cost of development. By financing the home (a consumer durable) separately from the land (a licensed property asset), in many cases it is possible to massively improve affordability. This might include leasing the land rather than selling it (arguably far more responsible in the case of publicly-owned land), deferring purchase over time, or collective purchase of the land. For example, a neighbourhood development company can purchase the land, represent a more appealing prospect to investors, because the risk of defaulting is spread over the whole neighbourhood. Matthew Benson of Rettie’s has proposed the use of ‘land bonds’, whereby a neighbourhood development company (for example a cooperative) could finance the cost of land by issuing 25 year bonds."
     
  • Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Affordable Land." 2018. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. 
     
  • Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." European Journal of Homelessness, Vol 5, No. 2, December 2011. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. 
     
  • Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430.
     
  • Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019). "Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." Architecture Talk (podcast hosted by Prakash).  March 13, 2019. https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39.
     
  • Steven Raymond, Eric Steven (2003).The Art of Unix Programming. https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html.
     
  • Roy, Ananya (2003). “Paradigms Of Propertied Citizenship: Transnational Techniques of Analysis,” Urban Affairs Review, vol. 38, no. 4 (2003): 463–91. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250356. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1e0iX1kzxDQ-6lGB9_851exaMiuRCfHRx. 
    "Abstract: The American paradigm of propertied citizenship has far-reaching consequences for the propertyless, as in the brutal criminalization of the homeless. Activist groups, such as the anarchist squatter organization Homes Not Jails, have sought to challenge this paradigm through innovative techniques of property takeovers, invocations of American traditions of homesteading, and Third World tactics of self-help and informality. This study trains a transnational lens on both the paradigm and its subversions. Posing Third World questions of the First World, the author seeks to unsettle the normalized hierarchy of development and underdevelopment and explores lessons that can be learned from different modes of shelter struggles."
     
  • Roy, Ananya Roy and Nezar AlSayyad, eds. (2004). Urban Informality. Berkeley: University of California, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004. 
     
  • Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019].  https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. 
     
  • Schmidt, Alexandra (2017). "The Big Politics of Tiny Houses: Zoning Villages for Homeless Individuals." Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Urban Studies, University of Michigan. April 2017. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing. 
     
  • Segel, Ginger (2015). "Tiny Houses: A Permanent Supportive Housing Model." Community Frameworks, (Bremerton & Spokane, Washington). Mar. 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20181221132510/http://www.communityframeworks.org:80/ws-main/docs/FINAL%20Tiny%20Homes%20White%20Paper%20March%202015.pdf.
     
  • Shearer, Heather & Paul Burton (2019). "Towards a Typology of Tiny Houses." Housing, Theory and Society, 36:3, 298-318, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2018.1487879.
     
  • Shenk, Timothy (2015). "Booked #1: What’s Wrong With Community Development?" [interview with Daniel Immerwahr, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015). Dissent, January 29, 2015. https://www.dissentmagazine.org/blog/booked-1-whats-wrong-with-community-development.
        Immerwahr: "I want a left that can operate on all scales. And part of that involves giving up this uncritical deference to 'communities.'"
  • Silverman, R. M. (2005). Caught in the Middle: Community Development Corporations (CDCs) and the Conflict between Grassroots and Instrumental Forms of Citizen Participation. Journal of the Community Development Society, 36 (2): 35-51. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/silverman05.pdf. 
         "This article examines the role of citizen participation in community development corporations (CDC). It is argued that CDCs are caught between two distinct forms of participation: instrumental participation that focuses on activities that support project and program activities of CDCs, and grassroots participation that focuses on expanding the role of citizens in local decision-making processes. A continuum based on these two forms of citizen participation is introduced. It is suggested that CDCs are often in the middle of the continuum where they must balance pressures to expand the scope of grassroots participation against the need to use citizen participation techniques to facilitate project and program implementation. The article is based on a series of in-depth interviews with the executive directors of CDCs in Detroit, Michigan. Recommendations growing out of the research focus on how the tendency toward conflicts between the instrumental goals of CDCs and the longstanding value of grassroots activism can be managed better."
     
  • Simon, William H. (2002). The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11
     
  • Smith, Doug (2019). "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. 
     
  • Smock, Kristina (2010). "An Evaluation of Dignity Village." Prepared by Kristina Smock Consulting for the Portland Housing Bureau. February 2010. [1].
     
  • Sparks, Tony (2009). As Much Like Home as Possible: Geographies of Homelessness and Citizenship in Seattle’s Tent City 3 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2009). https://geography.washington.edu/printpdf/research/graduate/tony-sparks-phd.
     
  • Spevak, Eli, and Madeline Kovacs, Orange Splot LLC. "Character-Compatible, Space-Efficient Housing Options for Single-Dwelling Neighborhoods." Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. May 2016. https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/UP/Pages/Space-Efficient-Housing.aspx
    Cottage Clusters
    Internal Home Divisions
    Corner Duplexes
    Accessory Dwelling Units
     
  • SquareOne Villages (2019). "1 Million Month Challenge: Affordable Together." post, February 28, 2019. https://www.squareonevillages.org/single-post/2019/02/28/1-Million-Month-Challenge-Affordable-Together.  [discusses their award of grant from the Meyer Trust's Million Month Challenge, and includes most of their grant proposal "Affordable Together: scaling a community-based approach to housing"; outline plans to develop Community Land Trust - Limited-Equity Co-op (CLT-LEV) model; describes planned outreach efforts including Toolbox and new Village Framework Plan planning tool].
     
  • Stevens, Robert William, and Ted Swisher, eds. (1986). Community Self-help Housing Manual: Partnership in Action. Intermediate Technology Development Group of North America, 1986.
     
  • Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. 10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x
     
  • Stohr, Kate, Cameron Sinclair, and Architecture for Humanity (2012). Design Like You Give a Damn {2}: Building Change from the Ground Up. Abrams, 2012. 
     
  • Tafari, Jack (2000a). "We Need a Tent City." Street Roots (Portland), October 2000. http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html.
     
  • ___. (2000b). "The future." Street Roots, December 2000. http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html.
     
  • ___. (2009). "A brief history of the Out of the Doorways campaign, part one." Street Roots, 6 Dec 2009.
    https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one.
     
  • Teige, Karel (1932). The Minimum Dwelling. 1932. 
     
  • Tsemberis S. (1999) From Streets to Homes: An Innovative Approach to Supported Housing for Homeless Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities, Journal of Community Psychology 27(2) pp.225–241. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DQyYJZLlx-tn7nwNQ68US7rD3DWQmbAq.
     
  • Tsemberis, S. (2010a) Housing First: Ending Homelessness, Promoting Recovery and Reducing Costs, in: I. Gould Ellen and B. O’Flaherty (Eds.) How to House the Homeless (New York: Russell Sage Foundation). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45532548_Housing_First_Ending_Homelessness_Promoting_Recovery_and_Reducing_Costs.
     
  • Tsemberis, S. (2010b) Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction (Hazelden: Minnesota).
     
  • Turner, Jody (2013). "Collaborative Design Tackles Homelessness" ["A group designing innovative support systems in Portland, Ore., is identifying better ways of living for the homeless and for communities at large]. Stanford Social Innovation Review, Jan. 15, 2013. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collaborative_design_tackles_homelessness. [on Rethinking Shelter project]. 
     
  • Turner, John F. C., ed (1972a). Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process.1972.
     
  • Turner, John F. C. (1972b). "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed. Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process (1972). 
     
  • Turner, John F. C. (1976). Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.
     
  • United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (2015). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf.
     
  • United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2016). "Housing First Checklist: Assessing Projects and Systems for a Housing First Orientation." (updated 2016). https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Housing_First_Checklist_FINAL.pdf. 
     
  • United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2018). Home Together: The Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness. July 18, 2018. https://www.usich.gov/home-together. 
     
  • Vail K (2016). "Saving the American Dream: The Legalization of the Tiny House Movement." U.Louisville L.Rev. 54: 357. http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/branlaj54&div=18&g_sent=1&collection=journals.
     
  • Vasudevan, Alex. (2017). The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting. 2017.
     
  • Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. 
     
  • Waldroupe, Amanda (2017). "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." Street Roots, 23 Jun 2017. http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers.
     
  • Walker, Lester (2000). A Little House of My Own: 47 Grand Designs for 47 Tiny Houses. 2000. [? check for earlier edition]
     
  • Ward, Colin. Housing: An Anarchist Approach (1976). https://libcom.org/library/colin-ward-housing-anarchist-approach.
     
  • Ward, Colin. Talking Houses. (London: Freedom House, 1990). 
     
  • ___. (2002). Cotters and Squatters: Housing's Hidden History. (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2002).
     
  • ___. (2002b). "The Worldwide One-night House." Open Democracy, 2002, http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp [accessed 27 October 2009].
     
  • ___. (2004). "The Hidden History of Housing." (London: History and Policy, September 2004); http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html.
     
  • ___. [?] "Walter Segal: Community Architect." Walter Segal Self Build Trust, http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html [accessed 15 February 2010].
     
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  • Ward, Peter (1999). Colonias and Public Policy in Texas and Mexico: Urbanization by Stealth. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999).
    ["describes how a two-tier system of housing regulations was gradually codified by the state in Mexico, leading to the legitimization of sub-optimal informal housing for the poor."].
     
  • Ward, Peter (2012). "Self-Help Housing Ideas and Practice in the Americas. "In book: Planning Ideas That Matter: Livability, Territoriality, Governance and Reflective Practice. Chapter: Chapter 11. Publisher: MIT Press, Editors: Bish Sanyal, Lawrence Vale, Christina Rosen, pp.283-310. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277589974_Self-Help_Housing_Ideas_and_Practice_in_the_Americas.
     
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  • Wikipedia. "Dignity Village." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dignity_Village. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.
     
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  • ___. "Dome City." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome_Village. Accessed 18 Nov 2019. 
     
  • Willse, Craig. The Value of Homelessness. 
     
  • Wyatt, Anne (2014) "Rethinking Shelter and Tiny House Communities: Dignity Village, Portland, and Lessons from San Luis Obispo," Focus: Vol. 11: Issue 1, Article 14. http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14.

 

 

Acknowledgements   

Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Sue Gemmell, Portland.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone. Portland activist & 2020 mayoral candidate. 
Margarette Leite, Center for Public Interest Design
Michael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Alastair Parvin, Open Systems Lab, London.
Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
Sherry Shultz, Springfield/Eugene MicroDwellers.
Eli Spevak, Portland Planning and Sustainability Commission.

 

Authors/editor bio notes

 

To Do

- review Tent City Urbanism, and references section. 
- research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven 
- villagebuildings twitter.
- VB logo?
- VB domain registration
- VB site 

 

 

Things to read next: 

(see also updated list in Tim's Workflowy)