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[[File:Shelter-Wise-POD-Design-tiny-house-for-the-homeless.jpg|thumb|right|500px|POD Initiative]]
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[[File:Shelter-Wise-POD-Design-tiny-house-for-the-homeless.jpg|thumb|right|400px|POD Initiative]]
  
'''Village Buildings: patterns for affordable housing from Oregon'''
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'''Village Buildings: new patterns for affordable housing from the bottom up. '''
  
A proposal for book and web publishing project, initially developed for entry to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy RFP or general funding.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles: Revillaging the World; A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.
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A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals).&nbsp;by Tim McCormick.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles:<br/> ''Revillaging the World'';<br/> ''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon''.
  
Author: Tim McCormick<br/> Short link to Google Doc version: &nbsp;[https://bit.ly/village-buildings bit.ly/village-buildings]&nbsp;- last updated 29 Aug 2019<br/> [http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Revillaging-the-World_book-proposal_2019-03-11.pdf Latest PDF version] (11 March 2019).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; __TOC__
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This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Intro/Background &nbsp; ==
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= Introduction / background =
  
=== Meyer Trust, Cost Efficiencies Work Group ===
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== Oregon utopian colonies, communes, planning&nbsp; ==
  
"Meyer Memorial Trust convened a Cost Efficiencies Work Group in 2014 to explore factors driving the cost of affordable housing development. Sixteen experts from development, construction, finance and related fields formed the Work Group and were charged with three major tasks:<br/> — Creating a clear and concise summary of key factors affecting the cost of developing affordable housing;<br/> — Identifying opportunities – whether policy and systems changes, or innovative approaches to design, construction and financing – to deliver affordable units at a lower cost; and<br/> — Advising Meyer on pilot or demonstration projects to test new approaches to affordable housing development.<br/> This report synthesizes the results of this work over the last year. Click to download the PDF report HERE: [https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf]. "
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=== Portland Downtown Plan ===
  
== <br/> <br/> Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiency program pilots ==
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See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
  
‪The final report of the Cost Efficiencies Work Group, The Cost of Affordable Housing Development in Oregon, was completed in October 2015 ‬<br/> Five innovative pilot projects last year (with predevelopment grants under a Request for Proposals that elicited 17 proposals overall)‬:<br/> &nbsp;
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=== Oregon land use reform ===
  
=== ‪Northwest Housing Alternatives&nbsp; ===
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See article [[Oregon_land_use_reform|Oregon land use reform]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
($400,000) — Building a replicable, efficient small project that is not reliant on 9 percent Low Income Housing Tax Credits for funding‬<br/> ‪This project, underway in Oregon City, will draw on and develop lessons from several other NHA projects around the state at different stages of development (in Hermiston, Hillsboro and Florence). In addition to rigorously focusing on cost-efficiency in design, NHA (working closely with its contractor Walsh Construction) will compare the feasibility of using factory-built modular housing with the most cost-efficient approach to site-built housing.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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== International tradition of self-build&nbsp;housing advocacy ==
  
=== ‪REACH CDC&nbsp; ===
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*squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.&nbsp; See article: [[One_night_house|One night house]]
 +
*UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
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*Latin America - JFC Turner "Freedom to Build"
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*US community/occupation housing 1960s-
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*1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
  
($400,000) — Adapting “Lean” manufacturing to affordable housing on a large project in Southeast Portland.‬<br/> Lean planning and coordination, typically associated with manufacturing processes, depends on an intensely collaborative and iterative approach to design and execution. The Lean approach taps into the collective expertise of the project team, identifies waste and inefficiencies, and focuses on continuous learning to improve workflow. By working closely from the outset of the design process with the general contractor (Walsh Construction), subcontractors, architect and other project partners, REACH hopes to achieve significant cost savings over a more typical affordable housing development.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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= Early Oregon villages for the homeless =
  
=== ‪SquareOne Villages&nbsp; ===
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== Dignity Village ==
  
($200,000) — Developing a new tiny-house village in Cottage Grove, with an emphasis on assisting other grass-roots efforts at low-cost housing.‬<br/> SquareOne is building upon its recent successes in Lane County (with Opportunity Village Eugene and Emerald Village Eugene) in providing basic, extremely low-cost housing drawing on grass-roots support. As it begins work on its latest project in Cottage Grove, SquareOne will distill what it has learned to date into a Toolbox and training kit meant to help other small Oregon communities with fewer local housing resources replicate the approach.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman
  
=== ‪Transition Projects Inc.&nbsp; ===
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uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village<br/> <br/> See article: [[Dignity_Village|Dignity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
($500,000) — Piloting efficient and flexible modular housing designs.‬<br/> At the core of TPI’s proposal is an innovative modular approach to design and construction that can be combined and configured in a variety of ways, including some single-room occupancy units with shared bath and kitchen facilities. Like the NHA project, TPI will work closely with its partner on this project (Housing Development Center) to compare and evaluate whether factory-built modules can be cost competitive with site-built versions of the units. This “kit of parts” approach will be piloted on an unusually shaped property in North Portland that would be difficult to develop with a conventional apartment building. HDC hopes to then partner with Northwest Oregon Housing Authority (NOHA) to replicate this approach to pilot low-cost workforce housing on the north coast.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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== Opportunity Village, Eugene ==
  
=== ‪Innovative Housing Inc.&nbsp; ===
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See main article [[Opportunity_Village|Opportunity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
The fifth predevelopment project (creation of a new rental housing community using manufactured homes in East Portland, led by Innovative Housing Inc.) is not proceeding as originally proposed but has surfaced important lessons for when and where manufactured housing might be a good choice for affordable developers.‬
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== Right 2 Dream Too ==
  
&nbsp;
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See main article [[Right_2_Dream_Too|Right 2 Dream Too]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
== Million Month Challenge proposals ==
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== Hazelnut Grove ==
  
Fall 2018 grant program from Meyer Trust:
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interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove
  
"Bring us your best ideas for guaranteeing 1 million months of affordability, using as little public subsidy as possible.<br/> &nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;<br/> Program explanation:&nbsp;<br/> "This takes a bit of unpacking. There are many possible paths to 1 million months; here are some potential examples to illustrate the kinds of ideas this could include:<br/> Piloting an approach to build, site and deliver new factory-built units meant to be affordable for 20 years that would aim for just under 4,200 units (240 months x 4,167 units = just over 1,000,000 months of affordability)<br/> Creating affordable units for 60 years with lower rents through cross-subsidy from other income-producing uses in the same properties, aiming to scale up to about 1,400 total units (720 months x 1,389 units = over 1,000,000 months)<br/> Maybe your best idea doesn't involve building any new housing? Exploring a sustainable approach to master-leasing new units in the private-market for five-year increments, staggered over time, to assist nearly 17,000 households five years at a time (60 x 16,667 = over 1,000,000)<br/> "The key point is that we are leaving it up to people who know the most about these challenges to define how to reach the goal. We're framing the goal this way to emphasize flexibility and focus on the outcomes:<br/> Flexibility: This is less about developing "projects" than creating a viable model or path; we are explicitly open to purely financial strategies that deliver on the outcome of creating more access to affordable housing.<br/> Outcomes: We are not necessarily focused on production of units (although more housing is important, and some strategies will rightly focus on that), but rather on the end-goal of housing large numbers of people for an extended period of time.<br/> "Finally, it's worth highlighting that we're pulling the focus away from the raw total development cost to focus on what really matters most: the amount of public subsidy required to achieve the goal.<br/> "Unlike a typical Meyer RFP, we're not looking for affordable housing projects per se, but a model or path that changes the game. You could say we're trying to "get out of the way" of solving these problems, by putting as few limitations as possible on what counts as a solution. We're calling the question for those who insist that the current system doesn't deliver bang-for-the-buck and there are better ways to do things. Ultimately, the point of this RFP is to give you an opportunity (and some resources) to take an idea or a notion or intuition that you've been thinking about and build it out to a full-fledged plan, test it, improve it and share it.<br/> "Sharing ideas, results and lessons learned will be a central part of participating in this experiment. Project teams funded under this RFP will be expected to participate in a learning cohort with each other, sharing and critiquing ideas, and helping each other refine and improve each model. Additionally, Meyer will create a variety of platforms and public events to highlight this work, to broaden the circle of folks around the state trying to think about these challenges in a different way and improve upon the ways we help people into housing they can afford, and ultimately to help public funders and other partners identify new models and approaches worth their support.
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See main article [[Hazelnut_Grove|Hazelnut Grove]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
Movable / Anchorable Homes&nbsp;<br/> New Starter Homes aka PAD Initiative proposal for Million Month Challenge, submitted by Village Coalition & Tim McCormick. &nbsp;See images below:&nbsp;
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== others in OR & elsewhere ==
  
&nbsp;
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See main article [[Village_model|Village model]]&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
  
== Projects elsewhere&nbsp; ==
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= Village Coalition & POD Initiative =
  
[possibly, these are woven into sections above by theme, rather than in section by themselves. E.g. for interim housing, Vancouver's Temporary Modular Housing projects, London's Y-cube, etc.]
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See article: [[Village_Coalition|Village Coalition]]
  
== <br/> Key concepts / issues - pattern language of controversies ==
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POD Initative
  
i.e., a "pattern language of objections / controversies": survey, anticipate, discuss in good faith the most commonly raised objections or controversies).&nbsp;<br/> - when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs?&nbsp;<br/> - affordability and housing standards&nbsp;<br/> - issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;<br/> - stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;<br/> - housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;<br/> - long-term cost issues<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- maintainability, durability<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- community and dweller acceptance.&nbsp;
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*description.  
 +
*see main article [[POD_Initiative|POD Initiative]]
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*interview/feature: Todd Ferry
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*Project descriptions
  
&nbsp;
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Plywood POD Initiative
  
== Appendix: A pattern language of housing affordability approaches ==
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*description
 +
*See main article:&nbsp; [[Plywood_POD_Initiative|Plywood POD Initiative]]
 +
*Project descriptions<br/> &nbsp;
  
illustrated by projects in Oregon
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== Kenton Women's Village ==
  
=== 1. Regional / Statewide land-use management and Upzoning: &nbsp; ===
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interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation
  
Oregon tradition of housing/land-use innovation
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See main article: [[Kenton_Women's_Village|Kenton Women's Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
examples of globally known initiatives from 1970s -- urban growth boundary law, 1st freeway removal, SB100 -- &nbsp;and the current HB2001 bill from House Speaker, Tina Kotek (D, Portland).&nbsp;<br/> Right: Governor Tom McCall, creator of Oregon's pathbreaking state land-use law.
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== Clackamas County Veteran's Village ==
  
See history:&nbsp;<br/> "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Michael Andersen, Sightline, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;
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See main article: [[Clackamas_County_Veteran's_Village|Clackamas County Veteran's Village]]
  
examples of SB100 (from 1970s) and the current HB2001 bill from House Speaker, Tina Kotek (D, north Portland). Compare also to currently proposed Washington State legislation.&nbsp;
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== <br/> Agape Village ==
  
=== <br/> * Mixed-Income ('Social') Housing ===
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See main article: [[Agape_Village|Agape Village]]
  
==== Vanport ====
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= <br/> Permanent villages =
  
integrated WWII wartime housing: Henry Kaiser's Vanport, the largest public housing development in nation. Privately built. (see picture at right).&nbsp;
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== <br/> Emerald Village, Eugene ==
  
==== Portland Headwaters housing ====
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See main article: [[Emerald_Village|Emerald Village]]
  
example of Headwaters Apartments/Village development -- current McCormick family apartment.&nbsp;
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house plans<br/> &nbsp;
  
==== HUD Section 236 ====
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== Cottage Village, Cottage Grove ==
  
Privately developed: e.g. HUD Section 236 mixed-income housing in 1960s-70s, which sometimes achieved a wide income range and sustainable cross-subsidization. E.g. King Dishman Apartments (Albina, Portland) and Aloha Park Apartments (Hillsboro), both developed in early 1970s by John McCormick with Urban Associates. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
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See main article: [[Cottage_Village|Cottage Village]]
  
==== Portland Downtown Plan ====
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house plans<br/> &nbsp;
  
discussion of income-diverse housing in the Portland Downtown Plan (1972).
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= Cluster housing =
  
=== <br/> * Accessory Dwellings ===
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== Co-op/condo villages&nbsp; ==
  
==== City of Portland ADU program ====
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See also main article: [[Cluster_housing|Cluster housing]].
  
==== ADU Prefab &&nbsp;financing models ====
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[[Cully_Grove|Cully Grove]]
  
==== Dweller startup ====
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[[Sabin_Green|Sabin Green]]
  
==== PSU Accessory Dwelling Initiative ====
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City of Milwaukie study
  
from PSU Institute for Sustainable Solutions, &nbsp;and component Small Backyard Homes Initiative from PSU CPID (Portland State University, School of Architecture, Center for Public Interest Design) &nbsp;(image right: "Insert House," from Small Backyard Homes Initiative).&nbsp;
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potential for under OR HB2001 & Portland RIP program
  
=== Subsidized Affordable ADUs - AADUs. ===
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villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods
  
Multnomah Innovation Lab - Home For All program - subsidized ADUs for formerly homeless.<br/> See also Los Angeles County Homeless Inititiative, Housing Innovation Challenge (Smith 2009).&nbsp;
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== <br/> New congregate housing ==
  
==== <br/> * Pocket neighborhoods, cohousing, villages ====
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LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects
  
projects from Ross Chapin, Orange Splot & Communitecture, and SquareOne Villages. &nbsp;
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See article:&nbsp; [[LISAH|LISAH]]
  
=== <br/> * Private affordable housing&nbsp; ===
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Jolene's First Cousin - Guerilla Development
  
- low income, low cost, built without subsidy
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See article: [[Jolene's_First_Cousin|Jolene's First Cousin]]
  
==== Guerrilla Development / Kevin Cavenaugh, Portland ====
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&nbsp;
  
Jolene's First Cousin project and model, for low-cost, private, SRO-type homes for formerly homeless, cross-subsidized by market-rate residences and commercial space. See: "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by Eileen Park, KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. &nbsp;[https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]
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= Meyer Cost Efficiencies program&nbsp; =
  
==== <br/> Rob Justus / Home First Development ====
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&nbsp;
  
building affordable housing (60% AMI and lower) without subsidies. See [Monahan 2017].&nbsp;
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Transition Projects Inc - modular housing - [[LISAH|LISAH]].
  
=== <br/> * Lot division / Condominiumization for small housing ===
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"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project
  
Orange Splot<br/> creating dense infill with separate ownership.
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SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village
  
=== <br/> * Interim / redeployable housing ===
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&nbsp;
  
==== POD Initiative ====
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= Million Month Challenge program&nbsp; =
  
interim use of affordable housing sites. &nbsp;
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Program of Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;
  
(right: "Portable Adaptive Unit, for POD Initiative, by SERA Architects, Portland).&nbsp;
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See main article: [[Million_Month_Challenge|Million Month Challenge]]
  
==== Opportunity Village, Eugene ====
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proposals Fall 2018
  
==== PAD Initiative<br/> &nbsp; ====
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awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019
  
=== * Alternative technologies ===
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&nbsp;
  
modular, manufactured, pre-fab, etc.
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= Future paths =
  
=== <br/> * Inclusionary housing&nbsp; ===
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village cluster housing
  
==== Pearl District ====
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refugee / emergency / climate-change villages?&nbsp;
  
- new Portland mandatory inclusionary housing (2018- ).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
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redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use:<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes projects
  
=== * Community Land Trusts&nbsp; ===
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&nbsp;
  
==== Cully Land Trust ====
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= &nbsp;Problem/objection patterns =
  
==== Proud Ground program: ====
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(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses).&nbsp;
  
"Proud Ground creates permanently affordable homeownership opportunities for first-time homebuyers using the Community Land Trust model...Founded in 1999, Proud Ground became the first city-wide entity to provide permanently affordable homeownership opportunities and since has expanded to five counties – Clackamas, Clark, Lincoln, Multnomah, and Washington – to better meet the needs of working families. &nbsp;Proud Ground has become one of the largest community land trusts in the country, having served over 350 families in a permanently affordable portfolio of over 280 homes."
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- temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness].&nbsp;
  
<br/> * Vouchers - local, state, and/or Federal&nbsp;
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- We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding.&nbsp;<br/> Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people.&nbsp;
  
==== 2017 Portland pilot ====
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- If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many.&nbsp;
  
2017 pilot from Home Forward (Portland city housing agency) for local vouchers. &nbsp;Vouchers funded by Meyer Memorial Trust, administered through Home Forward.&nbsp;<br/> See also: "Income-based housing benefit" article on YIMBY Wiki for overview of related programs globally.&nbsp;
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- when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs?&nbsp;
  
==== 2019 proposal from OCPP<br/> &nbsp; ====
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- affordability and housing standards&nbsp;
  
=== * Statewide rent control ===
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- issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;
  
Just passed by Oregon legislature, the first in the nation!
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- stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;
  
==== <br/> * Bond and General funding - local & state ====
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- housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;
  
(the "public option").&nbsp;
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- long-term cost issues<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- maintainability, durability<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- community and dweller acceptance.<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== <br/> * Abundant, or "Naturally occurring affordable" housing.&nbsp; ===
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= Appendix: A pattern language for housing affordability =
  
Analyze and estimate how much market housing -- historically and currently and potentially -- becomes available annually to, or is occupied by, lower-income households at an affordable price.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp;I.e. put in context to what degree new & filtered market housing has, does, or might 'supplyaffordable housing, compared to other means considered.
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See main article: [[A_Pattern_Language_for_Housing_Affordability|A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability]]
 
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=== <br/> Appendix: Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiencies Report, 2015 ===
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[https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf. https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf.&nbsp;]
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&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Project history & possibilities ==
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= Appendix: Project/book ideas =
  
=== <br/> Name ideas:&nbsp; ===
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== Name ideas ==
  
Revillaging the World<sup>1</sup>: new models for affordable housing from Oregon.<br/> <sup>1</sup>This expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011.&nbsp;
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*'''Revillaging the World'''<sup>1</sup>: new models for affordable housing from Oregon<br/> <sup>1</sup>this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''Village Buildings''': new affordable housing models from Oregon<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''The Oregon Housing Experiment'''<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''The Portland Experiment'''&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing''': New Models from Oregon
  
Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon.
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(the last&nbsp;three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oregon_Experiment The Oregon Experiment] (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Pattern_Language A Pattern Language] (1977) and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Timeless_Way_of_Building The Timeless Way of Building] (1979)."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
  
The Oregon Housing Experiment.
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== Book/publishing design concepts ==
  
The Portland Experiment.&nbsp;
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&nbsp; 1. '''developed incrementally''' by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; a) "'''pattern language'''" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; b) '''Holistic / "overview" angle''': e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;3. Potentially, "'''living book'''" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into '''Wikipedia''', YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
  
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon.
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== Sponsor / collaborator roles & opportunities ==
  
(the above three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;"A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia).&nbsp;
+
Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:
  
=== <br/> Publishing design concepts ===
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*SquareOne Villages&nbsp;
 +
*Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design&nbsp;
 +
*Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
 +
*City Repair Project
 +
*Sustasis Foundation, Portland
 +
*Architecture firms that have done&nbsp;POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes.&nbsp;
  
&nbsp; &nbsp;1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
+
<br/> <br/> &nbsp;
  
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable.&nbsp;
+
== "Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding ==
 
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource.&nbsp;
+
 
+
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact.&nbsp;
+
 
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=== <br/> "Revillaging the Book"&nbsp;- co-op funding and profit sharing ===
+
  
 
A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake.&nbsp;
 
A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake.&nbsp;
Line 218: Line 226:
 
A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.
 
A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.
  
In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification.&nbsp;
+
In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification.&nbsp;<br/> The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "[http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper Cooperative Product Development]" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.<br/> &nbsp;
  
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.&nbsp;
+
== Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions&nbsp; ==
  
=== <br/> Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions ===
+
Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository.&nbsp;
 +
<blockquote>"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more. &nbsp;This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki. &nbsp;Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki. &nbsp;His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository. &nbsp;Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press.&nbsp;</blockquote> <blockquote>
 +
''"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains. &nbsp;We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "''
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<br/> We've been discussing&nbsp;with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.
  
Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository.&nbsp;<br/> "56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more. This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki. &nbsp;Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki. His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository. &nbsp;Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press.
+
----
<blockquote>''"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains. &nbsp;We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share."''</blockquote>
+
<br/> I've been discussing&nbsp;with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.
+
  
== <br/> Works Cited ==
+
= &nbsp;Bibliography / Works Cited =
  
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams.<br/> ''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building.''&nbsp;1979<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams. &nbsp; &nbsp;<br/> ___.&nbsp;''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building'', 1979<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Heben, Andrew. ''Tent City Urbanism'' (2014).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." The Seattle Times, 26 February 2016. [https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/ https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/].<br/> &nbsp;
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. &nbsp;Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
*McCormick, Tim [2016]. "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016.&nbsp;[http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Chomei, Kamo, et al. ''Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike''. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
*Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. ''Willamette Week'', March 21, 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hayden, Dolores. ''Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing, and Family Life''. (??)<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Heben,&nbsp;Andrew. ''Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*____. "2014 in Review: A Pivotal Year for Tiny House Villages." Tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2014. [http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*____. "2015 in Review: Tiny House Villages progress as traditional housing options continue to fall short." tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2015. [http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." &nbsp;in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape''.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kern, Ken. ''The Owner-Built Home''. (Homestead Press, 1972).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*McCormick, Tim [2016]. "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. [http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Mitchell, Ryan. ''Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. &nbsp;Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*The Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015. [https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
*Smith, Doug [2019]. "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." ''Los Angeles Times'', Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Smith, Doug [2019]. "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
*Waldroupe, Amanda [2017]. "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." ''Street Roots'', 23 Jun 2017. [http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers].  
+
*Turner, John F. C. [1972a]. "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed.&nbsp;Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process (1972).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Turner, John F. C. [1976]&nbsp;''Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments''.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Turner, John F. C., ed [1972]. ''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process''.1972.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Waldroupe, Amanda [2017]. "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." Street Roots, 23 Jun 2017. [http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Walker, Lester. ''A Little House of My Own: 47 Grand Designs for 47 Tiny Houses''. 2000. [? check for earlier edition]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Ward, Colin [2002]. ''Cotters and Squatters: Housing's Hidden History''. (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2002).<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___, [2002b]. "The Worldwide One-night House." Open Democracy, 2002, [http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp] [accessed 27 October 2009].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [2004]. "The Hidden History of Housing." (London: History and Policy, September 2004); [http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [?] "Walter Segal: Community Architect." Walter Segal Self Build Trust, [http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html] [accessed 15 February 2010].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [?] ''Autonomy, Solidarity, Possibility: The Colin Ward Reader''. Edited by Damian F. White and Chris Wilbert.&nbsp;
  
== <br/> Acknowledgements ==
+
&nbsp;
  
See also: Acknowledgements on "New Starter Homes" proposal document.<br/> <br/> Also thanks for feedback from:<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene<br/> Sarah Iannarone - Portland State University<br/> MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP - Portland<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland
+
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Acknowledgements &nbsp;&nbsp; =
 +
 
 +
Also thanks for feedback from:<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.<br/> Sarah Iannarone<br/> MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP - Portland.<br/> Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= &nbsp;Authors/editor bio notes =
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;

Revision as of 13:24, 11 October 2019

POD Initiative

Village Buildings: new patterns for affordable housing from the bottom up. 

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals). by Tim McCormick. 
Alternate titles:
Revillaging the World;
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.

This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 

 

Introduction / background

Oregon utopian colonies, communes, planning 

Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan

Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform
 

International tradition of self-build housing advocacy

  • squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house
  • UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  • Latin America - JFC Turner "Freedom to Build"
  • US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  • 1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc 
     

Early Oregon villages for the homeless

Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

See article: Dignity Village
 

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village
 

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too
 

Hazelnut Grove

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove
 

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 
 

Village Coalition & POD Initiative

See article: Village Coalition

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

Kenton Women's Village

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village
 

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village


Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village


Permanent villages


Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans
 

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans
 

Cluster housing

Co-op/condo villages 

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

City of Milwaukie study

potential for under OR HB2001 & Portland RIP program

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods


New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects

See article:  LISAH

Jolene's First Cousin - Guerilla Development

See article: Jolene's First Cousin

 

Meyer Cost Efficiencies program 

 

Transition Projects Inc - modular housing - LISAH.

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village

 

Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019

 

Future paths

village cluster housing

refugee / emergency / climate-change villages? 

redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use:
   PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes projects

 

 Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

- temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness. 
[shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 

- We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 
Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

- If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

- when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs? 

- affordability and housing standards 

- issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

- stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 
 US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

- housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. 

- long-term cost issues
   -- maintainability, durability
   -- community and dweller acceptance.
 

Appendix: A pattern language for housing affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

 

Appendix: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
     
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
     
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
     
  • The Portland Experiment 
     
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 
 

Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 
 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 



 

"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.
 

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "


We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.


 Bibliography / Works Cited

 

 

Acknowledgements   

Also thanks for feedback from:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone
MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP - Portland.
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
 

 

 Authors/editor bio notes