Difference between revisions of "Village Buildings"

From YIMBYwiki
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(47 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
  
[[File:Shelter-Wise-POD-Design-tiny-house-for-the-homeless.jpg|thumb|right|400px|POD Initiative]]
+
[[File:Book-cover-mockup1.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Village Buildings cover mockup 1]]
  
'''Village Buildings: bottom-up housing, from Oregon and beyond.  '''
+
'''Village Buildings: West Coast housing from the bottom up.  '''
  
A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the [https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]'s spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals).&nbsp;by Tim McCormick.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles:<br/> ''Revillaging the World'';<br/> ''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon''.
+
A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the [https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]'s spring 2019 Advocacy grant funding.&nbsp;&nbsp;Alternate titles:&nbsp;''Revillaging the World.''<br/> by [https://tjm.org/about Tim McCormick]. Last update: 21 November, 2019.&nbsp;
  
This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;
+
This page is book draft / outline, linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
+
<br/> &nbsp;
+
  
 
= Introduction / background =
 
= Introduction / background =
Line 14: Line 12:
 
== Prefatory quote ideas ==
 
== Prefatory quote ideas ==
  
Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing<br/> J.F.C. Turner&nbsp;<br/> Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview.&nbsp;<br/> John Ruskin<br/> William Morris<br/> Jack Tafari&nbsp;<br/> John Brinckerhoff Jackson
+
Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing<br/> J.F.C. Turner&nbsp;<br/> Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview.&nbsp;<br/> William Morris<br/> Jack Tafari&nbsp;<br/> John Brinckerhoff Jackson
  
 
"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency."&nbsp;<br/> - Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946.&nbsp;
 
"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency."&nbsp;<br/> - Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946.&nbsp;
 +
 +
"In the broadest sense, the goal of urban planning is to facilitate communication."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;- Carl Abbott, PhD, Professor & Chair, College of Planning & Public Health, Portland State University. (ca 2004). Used as prefatory quote in 2004 "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-" by Dignity Village Council and City Repair Project.&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;"I want a left that can operate on all scales."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;- Daniel Immerwarh, author of&nbsp;''Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development'' (2015).
 +
 +
"Distrust all claims for 'one true way.'"<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; Unix "Rule of Diversity", in e.g. E.S. Raymond, The Art of Unix Programming, 2003.&nbsp;
 +
 +
"''Liminality&nbsp;''(from the Latin word for threshold) is a term..for a variety of&nbsp;''states of passage,&nbsp;''through which designated members of a given culture travel at specified times...Because they occupy no fixed status in the liminal state, they are considered ambiguous beings--even dangerous--and their presence is subject to ritual regulation. Special precautions are taken to separate them from ordinary social life...[Liminal states] share a suspension of the commonplace; intermingling with unfamiliar others in strange settings; and a heightened sense of uncertainty, of things being unfinished and in process.&nbsp; Although liminal passages are usually undertaken in well-mapped territory from which the voyager is expected to return,&nbsp;''occasionally the process stalls....We will argue that what unites the phenomena gathered up in the term homelessness is liminality (resolved or stalled) and abeyance gone awry."&nbsp;''<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;- Kim Hopper & Jim Baumohl. "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness." in [Baumohl 1996].&nbsp;
 +
 +
"this activity...to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models....The future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;- Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at PSU CPID,&nbsp;on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012].
 +
 +
"We all live in a state of ambitious poverty." ("''Hic vivimus ambitiosa paupertate omnes''").<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-Juvenal‬, Satires
 +
 +
"What the poor need is not charity but capital, not caseworkers but co-workers. And what the rich need is a wise, honorable way of divesting themselves from their overabundance."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-&nbsp;Millard Fuller, founder of Habitat for Humanity, in 1968 letter to Koinonia Farm community, proposing HfH. [quoted in Stevens & Swisher, Community Self-Help Housing Manual, published by Habitat for Humanity in 1982].
 +
 +
"Pray to God, but row towards shore."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;- Russian proverb.
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 22: Line 36:
 
== Foreword&nbsp;/ Preface ideas ==
 
== Foreword&nbsp;/ Preface ideas ==
  
Sergio Palleroni<br/> Todd Ferry&nbsp;<br/> Andrew Heben<br/> &nbsp;
+
Andrew Heben<br/> Mark Lakeman<br/> Sergio Palleroni<br/> Todd Ferry&nbsp;
  
 
== Project goals&nbsp; ==
 
== Project goals&nbsp; ==
  
a) provide a sequel to and expansion&nbsp;of&nbsp;''Tent City Urbanism'' (2014):
+
=== Provide a successor to&nbsp;[https://www.thevillagecollaborative.net/book ''Tent City Urbanism''] (2014) ===
  
*provide update on developments since 2014.&nbsp;
+
=== Examine recent developments such as POD Initiative, permanent villages ===
*document POD Iniative as a land-mark shelter-design program.&nbsp;
+
*broaden historical/theoretical context - eg developing-economy, self-build, housing as a verb, pedagogical, social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!)&nbsp;perspective.&nbsp;
+
*offer as context a broad&nbsp;taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches
+
  
b) help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible,&nbsp;the work of housing innovators such as:
+
help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible,&nbsp;the work of housing innovators such as:
  
*[https://dignityvillage.org Dignity Village]  
+
*Ted Hayes, Justiceville / Dome Village, Los Angeles
 +
*[https://dignityvillage.org Dignity Village], Portland
 +
*City Repair Project
 
*[https://www.squareonevillages.org/ SquareOne Villages], Eugene, Oregon ('SOV': non-profit founded by Andrew Heben; organizers of Opportunity Village, Emerald Village, Cottage Village, etc).<br/> Support and interoperate with: SOV's outreach programs, workshops; unit design program; Toolbox project;&nbsp;The Village Framework Plan planning guide for Community Land Trust Limited-Equity Cooperative (CLT-LEC) model;&nbsp;etc.&nbsp;  
 
*[https://www.squareonevillages.org/ SquareOne Villages], Eugene, Oregon ('SOV': non-profit founded by Andrew Heben; organizers of Opportunity Village, Emerald Village, Cottage Village, etc).<br/> Support and interoperate with: SOV's outreach programs, workshops; unit design program; Toolbox project;&nbsp;The Village Framework Plan planning guide for Community Land Trust Limited-Equity Cooperative (CLT-LEC) model;&nbsp;etc.&nbsp;  
 
*[http://www.centerforpublicinterestdesign.org/ PSU Center for Public Interest Design]  
 
*[http://www.centerforpublicinterestdesign.org/ PSU Center for Public Interest Design]  
Line 43: Line 56:
 
*[https://cityrepair.org/ City Repair Project]  
 
*[https://cityrepair.org/ City Repair Project]  
 
*[https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]  
 
*[https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]  
 +
*Tiny House networks, advocates -- American Tiny House Association, Tinyhouseblog (Alexis & __), etc.&nbsp;
 
*1000 Friends of Oregon  
 
*1000 Friends of Oregon  
 
*Orange Splot  
 
*Orange Splot  
 
*MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio  
 
*MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio  
 
*[https://homeless.lacounty.gov/news/l-a-county-awards-4-5m-for-innovative-housing-solutions/ Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative&nbsp;-&nbsp;Housing Innovation Challenge]&nbsp;  
 
*[https://homeless.lacounty.gov/news/l-a-county-awards-4-5m-for-innovative-housing-solutions/ Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative&nbsp;-&nbsp;Housing Innovation Challenge]&nbsp;  
 +
*LIHI - Low Income Housing Institute, Seattle
 +
*CASS Community Partners - Detroit<br/> &nbsp;
  
c) help create knowledge-sharing network:&nbsp;with
+
=== Build historical, global, and critical perspectives ===
 +
 
 +
*developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.
 +
*Intermediate technologies / Appropriate technologies - E.F. Schumacher
 +
*Community&nbsp;Development [Housing] - CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s, pedagogical &&nbsp;social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!)&nbsp;perspectives.&nbsp;
 +
*critiques of self-build and community development.&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
*surveying and responding to common objections / counterarguments. (anti-pattern language).
 +
*broad&nbsp;taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches. (see Appendix).
 +
 
 +
=== Suggest&nbsp;future paths - cluster housing, network villages,&nbsp;eco/resilient villages ===
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
=== Expanded project: help build&nbsp;knowledge/organizing network&nbsp;between&nbsp;allied organizations ===
 +
 
 +
e.g. with Village Collaborative, [[Pdxvillagecoalition.org|Village Coalition (Portland)]], LIHI (Seattle).&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Book as network: see also: "[https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/01/17/from-monograph-to-multigraph-the-distributed-book/ From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book]" [McCormick 2013].&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
See also Ward Cunningham's work on Federated Wiki, use on A Pattern Language for Growing Regions (Mehaffy et al).&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Network participants:&nbsp;
  
 
*Village Collaborative  
 
*Village Collaborative  
 +
*Tiny House networks, advocates -- American Tiny House Association, Tinyhouseblog (Alexis & __), etc.&nbsp;
 
*Center for Public Interest Design  
 
*Center for Public Interest Design  
 
*Meyer Trust  
 
*Meyer Trust  
 +
*AccessoryDwellings.org
 
*Housing.wiki  
 
*Housing.wiki  
 
*[http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html A Pattern Language for Growing Regions]  
 
*[http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html A Pattern Language for Growing Regions]  
Line 58: Line 97:
 
*[https://spatialagency.net/ Spatial Agency]&nbsp;  
 
*[https://spatialagency.net/ Spatial Agency]&nbsp;  
 
*etc  
 
*etc  
 +
*see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network, also built on MediaWiki platform as is&nbsp;HousingWiki.&nbsp;
  
see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network.&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= Essay/article ideas: =
+
= Backgrounds & strands: Oregon planning, self-build/eco housing, etc&nbsp; =
  
(sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):
+
&nbsp;
  
== The best vs the good, and defining "Housing First" in homelessness response ==
+
Abbott, Carl (1994). "Metropolitan Portland: Reputation and Reality." ''Built Environment'', Vol. 20, No. 1, (1994), pp. 52-64 [https://www.jstor.org/stable/23287727 https://www.jstor.org/stable/23287727]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=13FpPqg_NW0HzyjUti2-0ued7eu_IORQ2. https://drive.google.com/open?id=13FpPqg_NW0HzyjUti2-0ued7eu_IORQ2.&nbsp;]
  
The problem with knowing the solution to homelessness.&nbsp;
+
Abbott, Carl and Deborah Howe. "The Politics of Land-Use Law in Oregon: Senate Bill 100, Twenty Years After." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 4-35. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/20614497 https://www.jstor.org/stable/20614497]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1QoDK-YPGIrYFMDiJmzP9gt-Agf_jRhRS. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1QoDK-YPGIrYFMDiJmzP9gt-Agf_jRhRS.&nbsp;]
  
== Housing is the solution, but what is housing?&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; ==
+
Gifford, Laura Jane. "Planning for a Productive Paradise: Tom McCall and the Conservationist Tale of Oregon Land-Use Policy." Oregon Historical Quarterly , Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter 2014), pp. 470-501. Stable URL: [https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.115.4.0470 https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.115.4.0470]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=13c4zGoGxX3ZizhZPZ2TxS637ljBSUtCJ https://drive.google.com/open?id=13c4zGoGxX3ZizhZPZ2TxS637ljBSUtCJ].
  
cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "''Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia''." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf].
 
<blockquote>''Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose.&nbsp;''</blockquote>
 
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== 'Village' concept in urban studies ==
 +
 +
Gans, Herbert. The Urban Villagers.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Taylor. "The Village in the City"&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition."&nbsp;Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden.&nbsp;<br/> Presentation slides: [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf]<br/> Video: &nbsp;[https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/] (2:40 - 33:20).&nbsp;<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them&nbsp;<br/> as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now: &nbsp;we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."''
+
== Portland Downtown Plan ==
 +
 
 +
See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
 +
 
 +
Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." [https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718.&nbsp;]
 +
 
 +
"The [Citizens Advisory] committee has learned that traditionally a complex set of factors, including transportation, circulation, zoning, and taxation, have determined land use when logically these factors ought to support prior land use decisions. The Downtown Plan is an opportunity for the citizens of Portland to say: Let's first decide how we want to use our Downtown and then determine what tools are necessary to achieve our land use decisions. For example, our goals call for increasing the number of low-income and middle-income housing units Downtown. The traditional land use determinants would probably bar implementation of this goal. Thus, if the citizens of Portland approve this goal, then alternative implementing methods need to be developed." (p.2)
 +
 
 +
"[Section:] Housing & Downtown Neighborhoods.&nbsp;<br/> General Goal: to give high priority to increasing the number of residential accommodations in the Downtown area for a mix of age and income groups.."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"Encourage the fullest use of public and private programs to ensure that future Downtown housing accommodates a mix of low, moderate, and high-income people."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"Recognize the differing needs and problems of the various groups who will be housed, including those groups who naturally gravitate to the city core. Provide housing and services commensurate with their physical and social needs. These groups include the single retired, the elderly, itinerant workers, 'down outers,' students, the handicapped, as well as middle and upper income groups." (p.3).&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build&nbsp;traditions&nbsp; ==
+
== Oregon land use reform ==
  
*vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm.&nbsp;
+
See article [[Oregon_land_use_reform|Oregon land use reform]]
*squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.&nbsp; See article: [[One_night_house|One night house]]  
+
*Middle East - Hassan Fathy
+
*anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Howard, Colin Ward,&nbsp;Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner
+
*"Non Plan" movement in UK
+
*Latin America - J.F.C.&nbsp;Turner "Freedom to Build"
+
*vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al.&nbsp;
+
*UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
+
*"Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc.&nbsp;
+
*US community/occupation housing 1960s-
+
*1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.
+
*mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;&nbsp; emergency response vs permanent rebuilding<br/> J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.<br/> &nbsp;
+
  
== "Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards." ==
+
Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;
  
=== the 'Existenzminimum'&nbsp;tradition:&nbsp; ===
+
&nbsp;
  
Teige,&nbsp;''The Minimum Dwelling&nbsp;''(1932).&nbsp;<br/> CIAM II Congress, 1929.&nbsp;
+
== Self-build & eco-housing ==
  
Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). &nbsp;[https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121]
+
developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.
  
Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157].
+
Walter Segal - Segal Self-Build Housing System - Lewisham, London.&nbsp;
  
Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383.&nbsp;]
+
&nbsp;
  
Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].<br/> &nbsp;
+
== Squatting, direct action, land struggles ==
  
== How is&nbsp;homelessness not a catastrophe? distinguishing, comparing and combining the&nbsp;responses ==
+
Dignity Village as direct action & land occupation.&nbsp;
  
== In the long run, we're all homeless ==
+
Lents Womens Village - precursor to Kenton Womens Village - direct action leads to new village.&nbsp;
  
Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different?&nbsp;
+
Corr, Anders.&nbsp;''No Trespassing!: Squatting, Rent Strikes, and Land Struggles Worldwide''.1999.
  
comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
+
Vasudevan, Alex. (2017).&nbsp;''The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting''. 2017.
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= Background: utopian state, colonies, communes, planning&nbsp; =
+
== "Non-Plan" tradition ==
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Portland Downtown Plan ==
+
== Community&nbsp;Development Housing&nbsp; ==
  
See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
+
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s, pedagogical &&nbsp;social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!)&nbsp;perspectives.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Oregon land use reform ==
+
== Intermediate & appropriate technologies - E.F. Schumacher ==
 +
 
 +
work of Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, whose theoretical framework of “intermediate technologies,” now known as “appropriate technologies,” gives the most concise and explicit approach to this type of project (Schumacher 1973).
  
See article [[Oregon_land_use_reform|Oregon land use reform]]<br/> &nbsp;
+
Ernst Friedrich Schumacher advocates for developing a design with low capital costs, which uses local or found materials, keeping with grassroots decision making, working collectively, rather than relying upon individual eff orts, the allowance for user control, supporting community empowerment and economic self-suffi ciency (Schumacher 1973, 167-168).
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== Terrain vague - liminal space ==
 +
 +
"The concept of terrain vague was first theorized by Ignasi de Sola-Morales in the mid 1990s as a contemporary space of project and design that includes the marginal wastelands and vacant lots that are located outside the city’s productive spaces – which Morales describes as oversights in the landscape that are mentally exterior in the physical interior of the city. Around the same time, the artist and architect collective Stalker defined Terrains Vagues in the plural as spaces of confrontation and contamination between the organic and the inorganic, between nature and artifice that constitute the built city’s negative, the interstitial and the marginal, spaces abandoned by economic forces, or in the process of transformation.
 +
 +
"This book ''Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale'' – edited by the architect Manuela Mariani and the professor of English Patrick Barron - seeks to expand on Sola-Morales ideas and to present the terrain vague through a taxonomy of urban empty spaces presented by the authors in the introduction – derelict lands, brownfields, voids, loose spaces, heterotopias, dead zones, urban wilds, counter-sites. The book aims to collectively refine this notion as a central concept of urban planning and design, architecture, landscape architecture, film studies, cultural geography, literature, photography, and cultural studies, looking at possible positive alternatives to the negative images projected into them."
 +
 +
Barron, Patrick, and Manuela Mariani, eds (2014). Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale. New York: Routledge, 2014.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 147: Line 200:
  
 
Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. [http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html]
 
Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. [http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html]
 +
 +
Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001.&nbsp;<br/> [http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/ http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/].
 +
 +
Dome Village (Justiceville II), downtown Los Angeles,1993-2006&nbsp;
 +
 +
Founder and housing activist Ted Hayes was friends with Craig Chamberlain, architect and student/friend of Buckminster Fuller, who proposed creating dome dwellings on the site. Chamberlain also apparently had experience with fabricating fiberglass surfboards, and this informed his design of the Omni-Sphere dwellings at Dome Village, made of polyester fiberglass panels bolted together. &nbsp;
 +
 +
Mr. Lod Cook, the then President and Chairperson of the Board of the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) which contributed $250,000 to initiate the Dome Village said of it at the opening ceremony on November 3, 1993, “The most innovative concept addressing homelessness in at least the last 50 years.”
 +
 +
The 20 20’+12’ apex omni-sphere domes of that made up the village on 11/4 aces lot in downtown, Los Angeles, was invented by Craig Chamberlain, a US Military, Vietnam combat &nbsp;Veteran and ardent disciple-student, as well as personal friend of the late, R. Buckminister Fuller.
 +
 +
A wealthy property owner, Mr. David Adams, met with Ted, and so understood the immediate and long term resolution to chronic, sidewalk, encampment homelessness, became his business credibility partner; along with LA Mayor Richard Riordan who led the cities Planning Department, to permit the omni-spheres as legal, temporary, transitional structures for so said purposes.
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 157: Line 222:
  
 
Dignity Village's [web] site:&nbsp;[https://dignityvillage.org/ https://dignityvillage.org].&nbsp;<br/> <br/> See article: [[Dignity_Village|Dignity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
 
Dignity Village's [web] site:&nbsp;[https://dignityvillage.org/ https://dignityvillage.org].&nbsp;<br/> <br/> See article: [[Dignity_Village|Dignity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 +
References
 +
 +
*Budnick, Nick. "The Duke of Dignity Village" [:"Ibrahim Mubarak has learned that a homeless utopia is easier to conceive than to achieve"].&nbsp;''Willamette Week'', September 17, 2002 &nbsp;Updated January 24, 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.wweek.com/portland/article-1315-the-duke-of-dignity-village.html. https://www.wweek.com/portland/article-1315-the-duke-of-dignity-village.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Dignity Village (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 & Beyond: Outline Strategies for a Sustainable Future." Prepared by Dignity Village residents and supporters for the City of Portland and its homeless residents. &nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html].<br/> &nbsp;
  
 
== Opportunity Village, Eugene ==
 
== Opportunity Village, Eugene ==
Line 170: Line 240:
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= Portland's food-cart culture - re-normalizing&nbsp;informal & interim use of urban space&nbsp; =
+
Parr, Evanie and Rankin, Sara (2018). "It Takes a Village: Practical Guide for Authorized Encampments." Seattle University Homeless Rights Advocacy Project, May 3, 2018.&nbsp;Available at SSRN:&nbsp;[https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173224 https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173224].
  
(discussed by Palleroni & Cruz&nbsp;on&nbsp;''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]).&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Rediscovering&nbsp;informal & interim-use urbanism: Portland food carts, tactical urbanism, villages&nbsp; =
 +
 
 +
From: Burman (2017),&nbsp;"Liminal Dwelling: Support for Street Residents, a Place of Re-integration and Transition." MArch thesis, Dalhousie University:
 +
 
 +
"''The In-Between''.&nbsp;<br/> Every city has spaces that can be considered “terrain vague”, which may be defi ned as derelict areas, wastelands or transgressive zones, that are neither slums nor open spaces but instead, are spaces that look empty and appear to have no current use. They may have once been spaces used for industry that are no longer supported by the post-industrial city. They are outside of the city’s formal circuits and structures, and need to fi nd a new use, but in the meantime, sit vacant, waiting for a new use to emerge (Doron 2010, 247). Instead of being viewed as blocked, inactive thresholds, these spaces should be seen as spaces in which to experiment, that is, spaces that may create opportunity for new forms of social interaction and relationships (Mariani and Barron 2014, 57).<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; "Space is not a container to be filled with, or to be emptied of, a specific content, space is rather a network of relations activated, rearranged, and made meaningful by human actions (Mariani and Barron 2014, 49)."
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= Hazelnut Grove, the Village Coalition, and POD Initiative&nbsp; =
+
Food-carts as key paradigm-changer and new unit of urban form, discussed by Palleroni & Cruz&nbsp;on&nbsp;''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]).&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Blanchard, Dave. [2012].&nbsp;"Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni].&nbsp;''OPB Think Out Loud'', October 3rd 2012.&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/ https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/].<br/> MP3:&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3 https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3].
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Community, public-interest design: the POD Initiative, etc.&nbsp; =
  
 
Hazelnut Grove
 
Hazelnut Grove
 +
 +
Village Coalition&nbsp;
  
 
interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove
 
interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove
Line 196: Line 280:
 
Connecting global practices of informal,&nbsp;community-based, participatory development<br/> &nbsp;
 
Connecting global practices of informal,&nbsp;community-based, participatory development<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== Teddy Cruz interview ===
+
Teddy Cruz interview
  
 
&nbsp;from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID,&nbsp;on ''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]:
 
&nbsp;from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID,&nbsp;on ''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]:
 
<blockquote>''"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.''<br/> <br/> ''"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations.&nbsp;''<br/> <br/> ''"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words,&nbsp;the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing."&nbsp;''</blockquote>  
 
<blockquote>''"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.''<br/> <br/> ''"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations.&nbsp;''<br/> <br/> ''"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words,&nbsp;the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing."&nbsp;''</blockquote>  
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
Blanchard, Dave. [2012].&nbsp;"Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni].&nbsp;''OPB Think Out Loud'', October 3rd 2012.&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/ https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/].<br/> MP3:&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3 https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3].
 +
 +
Feldman, Roberta M, and Sergio Palleroni, David Perkes, Bryan Bell. "Wisdom From the Field: Public Interest Architecture in Practice." 2013.&nbsp;[https://www.yimby.wiki/index.php?title=Www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf&action=edit&redlink=1 www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf].
 +
 +
Ferry, Todd, and Sergio Palleroni. "Research + action: the first two years of the Center for Public Interest Design." in Wortham-Galvin, B.D., editor,&nbsp;''Sustainable Solutions: Let Knowledge Serve the City'', 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X].
 +
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
Line 222: Line 314:
 
*See main article:&nbsp; [[Plywood_POD_Initiative|Plywood POD Initiative]]  
 
*See main article:&nbsp; [[Plywood_POD_Initiative|Plywood POD Initiative]]  
 
*Project descriptions<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Project descriptions<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
 +
== MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio, LA ==
 +
 +
This project closely coincided with POD Initiative and was quite similar in many ways. Comparisons may be instructive, for example how MADWORKSHOP unlike POD Initiative did not explicitly have a pre-specified building code they were building to, or site either actual or hypothetical for program. While POD Initiative did not actually (at least yet) build site or structures for the contemplated users/program (Hazelnut Grove village), the built structures did get used at other sites - Kenton Women's Village, Clackamas County Veteran's Village, and possible others to come. Some already built or to-be-built POD units may be used at the new site in St Johns area to which&nbsp;Hazelnut Grove village plans to relocate -- name to be decided as of late Nov 2019.&nbsp;<br/> <br/> Borges, Sofia, and R. Scott Mitchell (2018).&nbsp;''Give Me Shelter: Architecture Takes on the Homeless Crisis''.&nbsp;ORO Editions, February 1, 2018)<br/> ''"Give Me Shelter documents the work of the MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio at the USC School of Architecture and their solutions for tackling the Los Angeles homeless crisis through design, compassion, and humanity. The book features exclusive content from leaders in the field including Michael Maltzan, Ted Hayes, Betty Chinn, Gregory Kloehn, Skid Row Housing Trust, and many more. Paired with a forward by Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, Give Me Shelter provides an in-depth look at how design can bridge the gap in services to get people off the streets and into housing sooner."''
 +
 +
<br/> &nbsp;
  
 
== Kenton Women's and later villages ==
 
== Kenton Women's and later villages ==
Line 227: Line 325:
 
interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation
 
interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation
  
See main article: [[Kenton_Women's_Village|Kenton Women's Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
+
See main article: [[Kenton_Women's_Village|Kenton Women's Village]]
 +
 
 +
Communitecture page on Kenton Women's Village&nbsp;<br/> [http://www.communitecture.net/kenton-womens-village.html http://www.communitecture.net/kenton-womens-village.html]
 +
 
 +
<br/> &nbsp;
  
Clackamas County Veteran's Village
+
=== Clackamas County Veteran's Village ===
  
 
See main article: [[Clackamas_County_Veteran's_Village|Clackamas County Veteran's Village]]
 
See main article: [[Clackamas_County_Veteran's_Village|Clackamas County Veteran's Village]]
  
<br/> Agape Village
+
=== <br/> Agape Village ===
  
 
See main article: [[Agape_Village|Agape Village]]
 
See main article: [[Agape_Village|Agape Village]]
Line 241: Line 343:
 
<br/> Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:&nbsp; how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why.&nbsp;
 
<br/> Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:&nbsp; how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why.&nbsp;
  
= <br/> Permanent villages =
+
=== Hazelnut Grove 2.0 ===
 +
 
 +
= <br/> Permanent villages & housing =
  
 
== <br/> Emerald Village, Eugene ==
 
== <br/> Emerald Village, Eugene ==
Line 254: Line 358:
  
 
house plans<br/> <br/> See also:&nbsp; Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington.&nbsp;
 
house plans<br/> <br/> See also:&nbsp; Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington.&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== Cass Community Social Services - Tiny Homes Detroit ==
 +
 +
Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit." &nbsp;[https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/ https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/]. &nbsp;Accessed 19 November 2019.&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== Veterans' Villages - Canada, Wisconsin ==
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== Backyard cottages for low-income & homeless ==
 +
 +
Block Project, Seattle
 +
 +
LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - from Transition Projects and Meyer Trust in Portland.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Multnomah County pilot.
 +
 +
Los Angeles pilot.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Dinh, Tran and Brewster, David and Fullerton, Anna and Huckaby, Greg and Parks, Mamie and Rankin, Sara and Ruan, Nantiya and Zwiebel, Elie (2018).&nbsp;"Yes, In My Backyard: Building ADUs to Address Homelessness. University of Denver Sturm College of Law Homeless Advocacy Policy Project, May 3, 2018.&nbsp;[https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173258 https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173258]&nbsp;or&nbsp;[https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3173258 http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3173258.&nbsp;]
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 266: Line 394:
  
 
See article:&nbsp; [[LISAH|LISAH]]
 
See article:&nbsp; [[LISAH|LISAH]]
 +
 +
Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. [https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html].
 +
 +
LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building.&nbsp;
  
 
"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project
 
"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project
Line 287: Line 419:
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Guerilla Development -&nbsp;Jolene's First Cousin project ==
+
== Guerrilla Development -&nbsp;Jolene's First Cousin project ==
  
 
See article: [[Jolene's_First_Cousin|Jolene's First Cousin]]
 
See article: [[Jolene's_First_Cousin|Jolene's First Cousin]]
 +
 +
Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. [https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html].
 +
 +
2016 - Portland Housing Bureau bought the Joyce Hotel SRO downtown. 1st publicly owned SRO in Portland?
 +
 +
2018 - PHB bought Westwind Apartments, in Chinatown. Will be torn down and replaced with new building.&nbsp;
 +
 +
PHB and state are contributing $4.5M to new Findley Commons, run by Do Good Multnomah.
 +
 +
Also contributed to a new $15M Central City Concern development with 40 SRO units.&nbsp;
 +
 +
LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. Willamette Week, 14 February 2018.&nbsp; [https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/ https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/]
 +
 +
Urban Land Institute. "Deal Profile: Jolene's First Cousin." ULI. [https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/ https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/]. &nbsp;Undated, accessed 18 November 2019.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 305: Line 453:
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= bottom-up in&nbsp;the Community Development tradition&nbsp; =
+
= 'bottom-up' and&nbsp;the Community Development tradition&nbsp; =
  
 
DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012).&nbsp;
 
DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012).&nbsp;
Line 319: Line 467:
 
Simon, William H. (2002). &nbsp;The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002. &nbsp;$5.11
 
Simon, William H. (2002). &nbsp;The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002. &nbsp;$5.11
  
Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22.&nbsp;<br/> 10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x
+
Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. &nbsp;[https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AWgx3fj3cB2gPd33qq2EUKLfDU41-yQt. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AWgx3fj3cB2gPd33qq2EUKLfDU41-yQt.&nbsp;]<br/> Abstract:&nbsp;<br/> ''"This paper questions the viability of an urban redevelopment model that relies on small communiry development corporations (CDCs) and proposes an alternative. Because most CDCs are severely undercapitalized, they can not keep up with accelerating decay. Their existence, and the emphasis placed on their supposed successes, allow elites to blame poor neighborhood CDCs rather than external conditions for redevelopment failure. The model also emphasizes that CDCs be community-based, but because their resource base is controlled from outside the neighborhood there is really very little community control over CDCs. CDCs may even delegitimize more empowerment-focused community organizing attempts by making them appear radical. Consequently, the CDC development process my actually disorganize poor communities by creating internal competition or disrupting social networks. An alternative model of neighborhood redevelopment is proposed which emphasizes community organizing, community-controlled planning, and high-capacity multi-local CDCs held accountable through a strong community organizing process."''
  
 
Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
Line 327: Line 475:
 
= Future paths =
 
= Future paths =
  
== Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support ==
+
== &nbsp; ==
 
+
Colin Ward.&nbsp;''Talking Houses&nbsp;''(1975).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; "Dweller control" in public housing.&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
 
+
from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]:&nbsp;''Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars'':
+
<blockquote>''"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."'' ''"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision."&nbsp;''</blockquote>
+
<br/> CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):<br/> emergence in 1960s.&nbsp;
+
 
+
Housing vouchers and income support.&nbsp;
+
 
+
 
+
  
 
== Village cluster housing ==
 
== Village cluster housing ==
Line 350: Line 488:
  
 
Created&nbsp;[mostly] by community capital, vs&nbsp;financial capital.<br/> &nbsp;
 
Created&nbsp;[mostly] by community capital, vs&nbsp;financial capital.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 +
[https://www.facebook.com/groups/361664944193345/permalink/919494485077052/ 14 September 2019 post] by Tim McCormick to American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook:&nbsp;
 +
 +
To me it seems like a big, big potential opportunity for siting tiny houses, especially in Oregon, California, and Seattle, is in movable (and perhaps foundation-anchorable / deanchorable) tiny houses being accepted and facilitated in local accessory dwellings (ADU) ordinances, i.e. as backyard cottages. Also, in cluster-housing developments enabled on former single-family lots by new Oregon law ([https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/hb2001?source=feed_text&epa=HASHTAG #HB2001]), Portland law (pending RIP Residential Infill Program), and just-passed California ADU law.
 +
 +
The new Oregon Reach Code offers some help there by:
 +
 +
a) recognizing the use of standards applying to both vehicle and on-foundation cases, and making it easier to do both, e.g. with similar RV-type utility hookups; and
 +
 +
b) bringing movable tiny-house *into state building code*, which I think will make quite a difference in local governments approving this use for ADUs and other contexts.
 +
 +
What might take this even further?
 +
 +
Based partly on the Reach Code, I and friends in Portland have been developing for last year a proposal "New Starter Homes" for the city to pilot a wide-scale, affordable ADU program. It would help (and perhaps manage & pay for) low-income homeowners to put simple post foundations and utility hookups on their parcel, then help match them with low-income residents who'd bring, build or be offered use of a tiny house to put on the site. Tiny-house resident would pay pad rent & towards utilities, perhaps subsidized by city or funder.
 +
 +
Portland has 110,000 single-family lots which could take an ADU, according to Commissioner Eudaly's analysis. Currently there are ADUs on less than 2% of lots. If we could interest or incent just a few more&nbsp;% of homeowners to accept that simple and buryable post foundation being put in, and agree to 1-2 year lease hosting a tiny house, we could have 1000s of sitings in Portland.
 +
 +
Proposal: New Starter Homes:<br/> Google Doc:&nbsp;[https://bit.ly/levitatetown http://bit.ly/levitatetown].<br/> PDF:&nbsp;[http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/New-Starter-Homes_2019-09-10.pdf http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/New-Starter-Homes_2019-09-10.pdf].
 +
 +
Comments & questions invited!<br/> <br/> References:
 +
 +
1) Oregon #HB2001, requires cottage clusters be allowed at least somewhere in all single-family residential zones above 25,000 population. See&nbsp;[https://www.sightline.org/2019/06/30/oregon-just-voted-to-legalize-duplexes-on-almost-every-city-lot/ https://www.sightline.org/2019/06/30/oregon-just-voted-to-legalize-duplexes-on-almost-every-city-lot/].
 +
 +
2) Portland's proposed Residential Infill Program would enable fourplex developments on a large portion of residential lots citywide. RIP:&nbsp;[https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/76592 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/76592].
 +
 +
3) Also, in an August 26, 2019 memo, the Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) noted that as part of a new "Anti-displacement Action Plan" added to RIP, it is discussing an idea to allow sixplexes if at least 3 units are affordable at 60% Median Family Income.&nbsp;[https://efiles.portlandoregon.gov/Record/13182894/File/Document https://efiles.portlandoregon.gov/Record/13182894/File/Document]. It's apparently inspired by a similar new law in Austin, "Affordability Unlocked."
 +
 +
4) Oregon's Building Codes Division last year passed a Tiny House Code which allows < 400 square foot homes, both mobile and on foundation, to be permitted in building code.&nbsp;[https://www.oregon.gov/bcd/codes-stand/Documents/reach-18reachcode.pdf https://www.oregon.gov/bcd/codes-stand/Documents/reach-18reachcode.pdf]. It was recognized by Portland Bureau of Development Services, which assigned an official to develop implementation materials and help developers in Portland:&nbsp;[https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bds/article/700062 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bds/article/700062]
 +
 +
5). City of Milwaukie released in June an impressive report "Milwaukie Cottage Cluster Analysis Final Report (done with Orange Splot of Portland and Opticos), that analyzed various hypothetical cluster developments. It showed that even if developed on a conventional for-profit model, they could bring costs of some units way down to 30-60% of Area Mean Income, far lower than existing or new single-family housing in the area.&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1u5LhZGO8PLo7H40oduKWOhsbNvqge1Bm/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1u5LhZGO8PLo7H40oduKWOhsbNvqge1Bm/view?usp=sharing]
 +
 +
6. For a discussion of cottage clusters generally and how Portland might use them, see: Michael Andersen, "Cottage clusters: Portland’s chance to build community in a new way." Portland For Everyone, Nov. 2, 2017.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@pdx4all/cottage-clusters-portlands-chance-to-build-community-in-a-new-way-7c504c5b260b https://medium.com/@pdx4all/cottage-clusters-portlands-chance-to-build-community-in-a-new-way-7c504c5b260b].
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
=== <br/> in Portland Residential Infill Project (RIP) ===
 +
 +
RIP is reducing the review procedure required for "planned developments" (PDs) which would include cluster housing, in most residential zones (R7, R5, R2.5).&nbsp;<br/> <br/> Portland, City of. Bureau of Planning & Sustainability. "Residential Infill Project: Recommended Draft, August 2019." Volume 1: Staff Report and Map Amendments<br/> [https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/746997 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/746997].
 +
 +
"7. Continue to allow different building forms and site arrangements through a planned development review. Affects R7, R5 and R2.5 zoned properties.
 +
 +
"Land use review procedures, in order from least to greatest level of process, include Type I and Ix, Type II and IIx, Type III and Type IV. Most PDs currently go through a Type III procedure, which is decided by a Hearings Officer and, if appealed, by City Council. By comparison, a Type IIx land use review, which applies to smaller land divisions, is less expensive, requires less time to process and is a staff decision that can be appealed to the Hearings Officer. Both procedure types utilize the same approval criteria and provide opportunities for appeals at both the City and State level. The recommended threshold for PDs is changed so that proposals for up to 20 units are processed as a Type IIx case, the same maximum number of units that can be reviewed through a Type IIx standard R2.5 subdivision (10 lots with two units each)."<br/> Planned development. See Chapter 33.270
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
----
 +
 +
<br/> [https://www.facebook.com/groups/361664944193345/permalink/962304720796028/ 2 November 2019 post] by Tim McCormick to&nbsp;American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook:&nbsp;
 +
 +
reposting to this group a long reply to a suggestion that tiny houses aren't appropriate in cities, because too low density, from PDX YIMBY group.
 +
 +
Original post was sharing an article about Sacramento's Mayor, also chairperson of California Statewide Commission on Homelessness, calling for large statewide expansion of tiny-home approaches. ([http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/10/29/sacramento-mayor-calls-for-rapid-expansion-of-tiny-homes-across-california/ http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/10/29/sacramento-mayor-calls-for-rapid-expansion-of-tiny-homes-across-california/]). Doug Klotz in PDX YIMBY group commented: ''"While tiny homes might fill in on suburban lots, for urban areas, especially near transit, they do not provide the necessary density. Only multistory does that." ''My extended reply below:
 +
 +
"Yes, I hope nobody considers tiny houses the answer to all housing needs/contexts or all homelessness issues. On the other hand, I also hope nobody considers our present set of approaches to be without major gaps and flaws, and large opportunities for change. Particularly, in my opinion, if you look at it from the bottom up -- i.e., what the most needy need, and what we could do with comparatively simple and decentralized approaches.
 +
 +
On density: yes, if you have a larger lot, zoned for multistory, and you have access to a lot of capital and good future rent revenues, then you can get more units with a large apartment building. However, most times and places in US cities are not like that, not even in most of inner Portland or with statewide HB2001 upzoning or citywide R.I.P. infill program. Most area of most US cities is 4-8000 square-foot lots with low-density residential, with prohibition of or strong opposition to large/high buildings. Available, financeable sites for large apartment buildings are scarce and costly, and will typically be built as market-rate, usually rental housing for the high end of market -- possibly with inclusionary housing units -- or sometimes as dedicated-affordable buildings, also costly per unit to build.
 +
 +
As a back-of-envelope exercise, we could take a typical Portland residential lot, of 50 x 100 feet, and consider development options. Assuming no on-site parking, and a 10' access way up the middle, it's plausible to create eight 20'x25' sub-lots, each of which could site most of the house models used at Emerald Village (see attached image). One unit might be a common building with shared kitchen, meeting/social space, etc.
 +
 +
I'm looking for examples of contemporary apartment buildings built in such a case, e.g. in Portland, and I'd say it's at least uncommon to put more than eight units on a site like this, though it can be done with small apartments, and has been done in other eras.
 +
 +
Aside from number of homes, an approach like dense, cluster, small housing has different characteristics and possibilities. First, it can require far less capital. Emerald Village, Eugene, for comparison (not that dense, but to compare model) is 22 mostly custom homes, total development cost including land $55k/home, which was financed by SquareOne Villages non-profit with small-scale grants and funds. (compared to $300-800k per affordable housing unit, typical range from Oregon to San Francisco).
 +
 +
This approach is also much more conducive to piecemeal and incremental development, both across a site and for an individual home which could be separately financed/finished/expanded over time -- this facilitates individual financing and building and owning. Which, incidentally, is characteristic of dwelling in many times and places, that gave people good opportunities to become owners and meet their needs -- including earlier eras in the US -- which is why I call a project proposal I'm working on for low-cost cottages, New Starter Homes.
 +
 +
Much lower capital requirements means many more parties can potentially develop, with different models such as limited-equity community land trust (e.g. SquareOne Villages), groups of people developing for their joint need (like Baugruppe model common in Germany, or any org/agency looking to create low-cost ownership housing.
 +
 +
Finally, I think small detached units have unusual potentials that we don't often think about. They can be pre-fabbed, so potentially built off-site more efficiently in all seasons, with much less construction disruption to area. They can be redeployable, so financed separately and more easily, and could move between interim-use, cluster-housing, or accessory-dwelling unit contexts. They can be built with very ecological materials, and have very low embedded and operating energy requirements. (home size is the #1 factor in building lifecycle energy use, along with driving less far to get to it). Also they can be more likely than large buildings to remain inhabitable after natural disasters like earthquakes, and can be relatively easily operated off grid; both of which sooner or later will be crucial when the Cascadia Fault earthquake hits Oregon.
 +
 +
When the Big One hits, I for one want to be living small, and cooperatively with neighbors."
 +
 +
&nbsp;
  
 
== Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages?&nbsp; ==
 
== Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages?&nbsp; ==
Line 369: Line 579:
 
== Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use ==
 
== Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use ==
  
see:&nbsp;PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes project
+
see: New Starter Homes / PAD Initiative project document.&nbsp; [McCormick 2019]
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support ==
 +
 
 +
Colin Ward.&nbsp;''Talking Houses&nbsp;''(1975).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; "Dweller control" in public housing.&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]:&nbsp;''Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars'':
 +
<blockquote>''"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.<br/> &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."'' ''"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision."&nbsp;''</blockquote>
 +
<br/> CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):<br/> emergence in 1960s.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Housing vouchers and income support.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Spohn, Richard B. (1972). "The Owner-Builder: Legislative Analysis and Recommendation." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, ''Freedom to Build'', 1972].&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Harms, Hans H. "User and Community Involvement in Housing and Its Effect on Professionalism." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, ''Freedom to Build'', 1972]. &nbsp;<br/> ''"Problems of insufficiency and inadequacy are immanent in the present housing supply structure, which is oriented toward the supply side and the construction of units according to procedures set by industry and government, and which subsidized industry, professional 'facilitating beneficiaries,' and the rich in order to provide housing for the poor...Direct subsidies to users in combination with a network of decentralized services could increase the autonomy of low-income families without setting up complicated mechanisms to regulate the lives of the poor or the process by which housing for the poor is created."&nbsp;''<br/> Discusses&nbsp;1968 Tent City in Boston.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
"The failures of the market- and state-based housing provision and the relative success of community-based home and neighborhood building (especially the so-called third world and supposedly developing countries) highlight the complementarities of these three essentially different 'sectors.'"&nbsp;<br/> - John F. C. Turner, Foreward to Nabeel Hamdi, ''Housing Without Houses'', 1995.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Right to Build and the "Citizen Sector" (Alastair Parvin et al):&nbsp;digital, distributed, mass self-build housing.&nbsp; ==
 +
 
 +
Parvin, Alastair, and David Saxby, Cristina Cerulli, Tatjana Schneider (2011). "A Right to Build: The next mass-housebuilding industry." Architecture 00 and University of Sheffield School of Architecture, 2011.&nbsp;[https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/arighttobuild https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/arighttobuild].&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c].
 +
 
 +
Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 383: Line 621:
 
(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses).&nbsp;
 
(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses).&nbsp;
  
1) temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness].&nbsp;
+
== we shouldn't lower housing standards, we should provide enough&nbsp;funding ==
  
2) We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding.&nbsp;<br/> Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people.&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
3) If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many.&nbsp;
+
== tiny houses / villages don't provide the needed density for urban areas ==
  
4)&nbsp;when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs?&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
5)&nbsp;affordability and housing standards&nbsp;
+
== temporary&nbsp;or substandard housing/shelter isn't and distracts from the real solution, housing ==
  
6) issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;
+
'temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.&nbsp; [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness].&nbsp;
  
7) stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;
+
Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives."&nbsp;''Journal of the American Planning Association'', Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121.&nbsp;[https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618 https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618]. &nbsp;[full text].
  
8) US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
9) housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;
+
== 'Self build' and lower standards facilitate exploitation, inequality, defunding ==
  
10) long-term cost issues<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- maintainability, durability<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- community and dweller acceptance.
+
e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo's critique of CIAM and "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts, in "Architecture's Public's,"&nbsp;as serving interests of inequality and exploitation.
  
11) Critique of "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts as potentially serving interests of inequality and exploitation: e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
+
We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding.&nbsp;<br/> <br/> If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many.&nbsp;
  
= Appendix: A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability =
+
&nbsp;
  
See main article: [[A_Pattern_Language_for_Housing_Affordability|A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability]]
+
== Different housing for the poor and unhoused makes it stigmatized & unintegrated ==
  
== Land-use&nbsp;reform ==
+
Stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;
  
(including building regulations reform)
+
US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;
  
1970s-present
+
Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people.&nbsp;
  
== <br/> Mobility&nbsp;improvement ==
+
&nbsp;
  
== <br/> Financial reform & innovation ==
+
== Lower cost/standard housing may be more costly in long run ==
  
Tax preferences/incentives for affordable & non-profit housing.
+
&nbsp;
  
Bonding methods.
+
== <br/> Lower building costs help developers, but don't lower prices ==
  
Social Impact Bonds.
+
housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;
  
Cooperative financing/development.&nbsp; (cf German regulations facilitating).&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Non-profit & Public housing; use of public land. ==
+
= Essay/article ideas (possible&nbsp;book chapters) =
  
[Bond and General funding - local/state. i.e., just tax ourselves more. (the "public option")].
+
sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):
  
&nbsp;
+
== <br/> A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability ==
  
== Vouchers & direct subsidy: local, state, and/or Federal ==
+
possibly for an Appendix.<br/> See main article: [[A_Pattern_Language_for_Housing_Affordability|A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability]].<br/> &nbsp;
  
a 'choice' strategy. &nbsp;
+
== Housing solutionism, and the best versus the good.&nbsp; ==
  
[Bond and General funding - local/state. i.e., just tax ourselves more. (the "public option")]<br/> &nbsp;
+
It's an appealing, intuitive, idea, and often said in the homelessness world: the solution to homelessness is housing. (eg here by National Alliance to End Homelessness&nbsp;[https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/housing/ https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/housing/]). Who could disagree? What devil would want that they shouldn't have housing?<br/> <br/> However, perhaps it is a bit like saying the solution to cancer is to not have cancer. It's true enough, but how? Perhaps, in the case of cancer, first by studying how and doing what helps prevent it, e.g. health practices and environmental protections; then, how soonest to detect it, since sooner remedies are much more effective; then what techniques are best to treat it; then, how to fairly choose what to do, given competing prevention/treatment options to approve or fund. The goal is clear but there are many paths.
  
== Mixed-income housing ==
+
[[File:Greg-Barchuk--A-child-could-figure-out-how-to-end-homelessness.jpg|thumb|left|800px|Greg-Barchuk--A-child-could-figure-out-how-to-end-homelessness.jpg]]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
<div style="clear: both"><br/> The self-evidentness of "Housing ends homelessness" belies the complex history of how it arose, and what work it does in the field. It is associated with the late-1990s categorizing the "chronicly homeless" (Culhane & Kahn, 1998, etc), who permanently need and can be effectively treated (Tsemberis 1999 etc) with conventional housing plus services, provided without treatment preconditions ("Housing First"). Increasingly this has been generalized into the officially endorsed concept for all homelessness response, and used to oppose or limit support for 'shelters,' or anything classified as transitional housing, and sometimes also charitable services such as mobile showers (e.g. Parsell & Watts, 2017).<br/> <br/> Also, "housing ends homelessness" or Housing First ideas are typically used to argue, explicitly or implicitly, for providing housing that is the same as current, conventional market housing (see e.g. PSU HRAC's 2019 homelessness report); or a variant, "supportive housing," usually defined as that plus on-site medical and social services/facilities. Often, there is an argument that this is not only the best thing to, but saves public money by reducing use of other services -- which, while it helps to seal a slam-dunk case, turns out to be generally doubtful, and anyway unfortunate in arguing that helping the needy must pay for itself.<br/> <br/> Or often, now, permanent supportive housing is seen as the /only/ solution. For example, a recent OPB story "[https://www.opb.org/news/article/multnomah-county-portland-oregon-chronic-homelesssness-increase/ Multnomah County Seeing Spike In People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness]" quoted Multnomah County / City of Portland Joint Office of Homeless Services: "Jolin said the office already knows what the solution is. 'The fact that we don’t have supporting housing is why we’re seeing a persistent increase in the chronically homeless over time,' he said."&nbsp;The Joint Office "defines supportive housing as housing that is affordable to those with 'very limited to almost no income' and is equipped with onsite mental health treatment and other support services." [though the US Interagency Council on Homelessness doesn't consider on-site required:&nbsp;[https://www.usich.gov/solutions/housing/supportive-housing/ https://www.usich.gov/solutions/housing/supportive-housing/]; and Sam Tsemberis, chief promulgator of the approach, defined it initially as, and prefers, housing that is *not* integrated with on-site services].<br/> <br/> So for example, we see, as city response to homelessness, policy like the 2016 Housing Bond, dedicating $258M to create 1,300 units of permanently affordable housing, 600 for households below 30% of AMI, 300 of them Permanent Supportive Housing. Portland Housing Bureau just announced they have hit goal, (via the crucial factor of state law changing to allow funding of private projects), funding 1,424 units, with $213M of the money -- 64% new units, 36% acquisition/rehab. That averages $150k of city funding per unit, probably higher for the new units, and total subsidy per unit much higher due to partner developers bringing other subsidy funds such as LIHTC tax credits, so I'll loosely guess $300k/unit. These projects also have significant rent income from most home recipients, via income or benefits.<br/> <br/> One issue with these projects is what housing economists call the "crowding out" effect of subsidized housing. They are generally in good locations which, given the level of housing demand, would likely otherwise have been developed as market-rate housing. While subsidized projects clearly help the city's affordability more, it should be compared to what positive affordability effect the market-rate housing might have had; and also, what alternately could be done with the subsidies.<br/> <br/> The basic problem here is that we have a quite costly response, of creating/acquiring housing units at $100k's each, which is helping only a small part of the needy population; and we have both a large needy population existing, but steady inflow of more people into homelessness. Of course, we could say (and advocates often do say) that we just need to greatly scale up the response. But do we even know how much impact the current approach has, that we would know how much it would need scaling? I think we hardly know or agree on that at all.<br/> <br/> Official announcements and advocacy often state or imply that 100 units of permanent supportive housing would reduce chronic homelessness by 100 households; but aggregate-effects research, such as reviewed by O'Flaherty in his recent lit review, find dramatically different results, of < 10 household reduction for every 100 new PSH units. (O'Flaherty, Brendan. "Homelessness Research: A Guide for Economists (and Friends)." Journal of Housing Economics (2019), doi:&nbsp;[https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2019.01.003 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2019.01.003]. PDF:&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=1gxVex3Ph82h6sRVilNkfWzvS4GsB6gGN https://drive.google.com/open...]).<br/> <br/> In any case, when confronted with a large social project such as ending homelessness, shouldn't we ask how best, cost-effectively, and expeditiously it can be done, and not just accept a "trust us!" from the establishment in charge? Is it undignifying the homeless, to ask what housing is, how it can be done anew? I think it's more undignifying to suggest that the answers are all known, to a monumentally complex and severe problem stretching on for decades and in many places including West Coast cities, getting worse. With deep respect for the many committed, caring, expert people working in this field -- and recognizing that experienced advocates may feel embattled and inclined to circle wagons and use what rhetoric seems to work -- I think, as Giancarlo De Carlo said: architecture is too important to be left to the architects. ("Architecture's Public", 1970).<br/> <br/> In my opinion, towards housing for all, governments should focus on first on reducing overall housing scarcity and cost factors, then on the potential for helping the least-served with a housing benefit (i.e. voucher), and then on enabling in the most cost-effective way the largest possible amount of basic housing options, in the way that least crowds out other housing production; and by combining all means, move towards an effective "right to housing." Some obvious candidates for where governments might look for lowest-subsidy-cost, adequate new dwellings are: incenting and facilitating house-sharing, of underutilized e.g. empty-nest homes; and likewise, low-cost accessory dwelling and cottage cluster housing aimed at low-income households.<br/> <br/> The seemingly obvious "housing ends homelessness" answer, in my opinion, unfortunately tends to evade necessary analyses, and considering issues broadly and radically. It tends to promote a costly new-housing 'cure' over possibly much more cost-effective preventions or treatments, it tends to occlude the question of what counts or works as 'housing,' and how it might be done differently. Exactly contrary to hopes, it may help tend to frame the problem such that it will never be solved, at least in our time.</div>
 +
---
  
public or private developed, e.g. Vanport, Headwaters, Aloha Park<br/> &nbsp;
+
thread with Watts et al:&nbsp;&nbsp;[https://twitter.com/tmccormick/status/1189138645866799106 https://twitter.com/tmccormick/status/1189138645866799106]
  
== Rent regulation ==
+
cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "''Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia''." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf].
 +
<blockquote>''Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose.&nbsp;''</blockquote>
 +
&nbsp;
  
Oregon passes nation's 1st statewide rent control in 2019. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition."&nbsp;Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden.&nbsp;<br/> Presentation slides: [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf]<br/> Video: &nbsp;[https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/] (2:40 - 33:20).&nbsp;<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them&nbsp;<br/> as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now: &nbsp;we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."''
  
== <br/> Inclusionary housing ==
+
&nbsp;
  
mandated, incented, or purchased. Example of Pearl District. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives."&nbsp;''Journal of the American Planning Association'', Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121.&nbsp;[https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618 https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618]. &nbsp;[full text].
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Lot division &&nbsp;'condoization' ==
+
== Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build&nbsp;traditions&nbsp; ==
  
Portland lot-division / narrow lots program.&nbsp;
+
&nbsp;
  
Eli Spevak / Orange Splot projects; Pocket Neighborhoods, Villages: Ross Chapin, Cully Grove, SquareOne.
+
vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm.&nbsp;
  
&nbsp;
+
squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.&nbsp; See article: [[One_night_house|One night house]]
  
== Sharing / Congregate housing ==
+
Middle East - Hassan Fathy
  
SRO, co-housing, co-living.
+
anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Ebenezer Howard, Colin Ward,&nbsp;Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner
  
&nbsp;
+
"Non Plan" movement in UK
  
== Cooperative housing ==
+
Latin America - J.F.C.&nbsp;Turner "Freedom to Build"
  
Emerald Village.
+
vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al.&nbsp;
  
&nbsp;
+
UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  
== Accessory Dwellings ==
+
"Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc.&nbsp;
  
Self-, startup-, or public-financed. "Backdoor revolution."
+
US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  
&nbsp;
+
1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.
  
== Community Land Trusts, deed restrictions, limited/shared equity&nbsp; ==
+
mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;&nbsp; emergency response vs permanent rebuilding
  
Cully Land Trust, Emerald Village&nbsp;
+
J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.
  
&nbsp;
+
the Principle of Requisite Variety<br/> &nbsp;
  
== Privately-developed&nbsp;affordable housing ==
+
Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990.&nbsp;[https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/files/mchg/how_the_other_half_builds_ssp.pdf https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/files/mchg/how_the_other_half_builds_ssp.pdf].&nbsp;
  
built w/out subsidy. Guerrilla Development, Justus / Home First.
+
Hamdi, Nabeel. 1995. Housing without Houses: Participation, Flexibility, Enablement. &nbsp;Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing (formerly Intermediate Technology Publications), The Schumacher Centre, 1995.&nbsp;[https://www.scribd.com/document/364607734/hamdi-nabeel-housing-without-houses-participation-flexibility-enablement https://www.scribd.com/document/364607734/hamdi-nabeel-housing-without-houses-participation-flexibility-enablement].
 +
 
 +
Hamdi, Nabeel (2004). Small Change: About the art of practice and the limits of planning in cities. London: Earthscan, 2004. [https://www.scribd.com/document/363933988/320473408-Hamdi-Small-Change-pdf https://www.scribd.com/document/363933988/320473408-Hamdi-Small-Change-pdf].
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Interim, mobile, or redeployable housing ==
+
== "Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards." ==
  
POD, PAD Initiatives, Opportunity Village, OR Tiny House Code.
+
the 'Existenzminimum'&nbsp;tradition:&nbsp;
  
&nbsp;
+
Teige,&nbsp;''The Minimum Dwelling&nbsp;''(1932).&nbsp;<br/> CIAM II Congress, 1929.&nbsp;
  
== Alternative design & technologies ==
+
Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). &nbsp;[https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121]
  
modular, manufactured, pre-fab, etc.&nbsp;
+
Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157].
 +
 
 +
Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383.&nbsp;]
 +
 
 +
Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].
 +
 
 +
"Just enough" - minimalism, ecology, & justice&nbsp;in housing
 +
 
 +
book&nbsp;''Just Enough&nbsp;''by Azby Brown - Edo Japan as a social/technological apex in sustainable communities.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." [https://mchg.ca/publications/ https://mchg.ca/publications/].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Homelessness and&nbsp;disaster:&nbsp;comparing and combining responses ==
 +
 
 +
"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency."&nbsp;<br/> - Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
In the long run, we're all homeless
 +
 
 +
Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different?&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Informal, self-build, & incremental&nbsp;housing ==
+
----
 +
 
 +
from comment in Village Collaborative group by Tim about post on SOS "Stewardship Villages", San Francisco:&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
"This presentation from Saint Francis Homeless Challenge highlights the large current and potential overlaps between homelessness response, 'emergency' or 'disaster' response, and climate-change adaptation -- e.g. off-grid and decarbonized energy sources. It's fruitful to compare ways these two situation types thought of and responded to, or might be, and I'm exploring this in an essay draft, "Homelessness and&nbsp;disaster:&nbsp;comparing and combining responses," for #VillageBuildings web/book project. What do you think, why with homelessness do we not help everyone equally and best we can, as with 'natural' disasters?&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
This is a perennial question posed with homelessness. Perhaps the different response is because 'disaster' is seen as a well-defined and specific, rather than many-causal and ongoing, affliction; affecting people equally and regardless of their actions?&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.facebook.com/groups/TheVillageCollaborative/permalink/1168850549956586/ https://www.facebook.com/groups/TheVillageCollaborative/permalink/1168850549956586/]
 +
 
 +
What do you think, why with homelessness do we not help everyone equally and as best we can
 +
 
 +
Saint Francis' choice of label for their model, "S.O.S." (Safe Organized Spaces) signals 'emergency' -- also, saving souls -- and in the presentation below they focus on solar power supply "which could provide off-grid energy for our proposed 180 Jones, Tenderloin prototype village and for future sites, as well as for disaster relief situations and as a mobile charging station for the unhoused."
 +
 
 +
But disaster effects actually often are many-causal, ongoing, and avoidable: for example, all kinds of societal decisions create disaster vulnerability, especially for the marginalized, such as steering them into relatively unsafe housing, in flood plains or landslide zones; &nbsp;not building or maintaining levees, not investing in early-warning systems, sirens, emergency response systems, emergency transport capability, first aid supplies, and shelters. &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Conversely, for the more privileged, society has long permitted and even subsidized housing in disaster-prone areas such as near shore on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, canyon and hill areas in California urban edges. &nbsp;They are subsidized by explicit or implicit insurance (e.g. Federal flood insurance, and expectation that costly emergency response and rebuilding will recurringly be undertaken by government). &nbsp;These are cases where the 'disasters' are somewhat predictable, in that wildfires and storms/hurricanes are known to reoccur, yet people keep building and rebuilding in places where they probably wouldn't if they were fully bearing the disaster risk.&nbsp;<br/> ------
 +
 
 +
Aquilino, Marie, ed.&nbsp;''Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity''. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).<br/> [https://www.yimby.wiki/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781935202479 ISBN 9781935202479].&nbsp;[https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Shelter-Architecture-Human-Dignity/dp/1935202472 [1]].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 1. Architecture after disaster&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --<br/> Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --<br/> News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --<br/> From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 2. What should governments do?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --<br/> Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --<br/> What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 3. Urban risk and recovery&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --<br/> Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --<br/> Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --<br/> Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --<br/> Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 4. Environmental resilience&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --<br/> The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --<br/> Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --<br/> On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 5. Teaching as strategic action&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --<br/> Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --<br/> Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 6. Is prevention possible?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --<br/> Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --<br/> Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --<br/> Afterword&nbsp;:&nbsp;<br/> Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr.&nbsp;''Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis''. 2006.
 +
 
 +
Cuny, Frederick C. (1983).&nbsp;''Disasters and Development''.&nbsp;1983. Full text:&nbsp;[https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/159887 https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/159887].
 +
 
 +
Davis, Ian (1978).&nbsp;''Shelter After Disaster''.&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog].
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Abundant, or "Naturally occurring affordable" housing ==
+
= Appendix&nbsp;--&nbsp;A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability =
  
Housing for all.
+
See main article: [[A_Pattern_Language_for_Housing_Affordability|A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability]]
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
= Appendix: Project/book ideas =
+
= Appendix B: Project/book ideas =
  
 
== Name ideas ==
 
== Name ideas ==
Line 579: Line 865:
 
</blockquote>  
 
</blockquote>  
 
<br/> We've been discussing&nbsp;with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.
 
<br/> We've been discussing&nbsp;with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
= Appendix C:&nbsp;book proposal draft&nbsp; =
 +
 +
In case we consider proposing this project to a publisher, and useful to consider in any case, here are questions from: "Guidelines for Submitting a Proposal to Island Press" [https://islandpress.app.box.com/s/pwy70may609coa912ft4pewilzu0mtxb. https://islandpress.app.box.com/s/pwy70may609coa912ft4pewilzu0mtxb.]:<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 +
''1. General Overview: Introduce your subject and argument. Explain why your book is needed; what does it offer readersthat is new? Describe your overall approach and structure.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''2. Table of Contents: List allchapters, along with any front matter (introductions/prefaces, etc.) and back matter (appendices/charts/references/sources lists/index, etc.). Annotate each chapter briefly.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''3. Audience: Define your intended audience and explain why the book will appeal to them. Include well-defined groups of readers (e.g.,members of particular professions or academic fields). List the relevant associations that are most important for the audience for your book and identify those in which you are active. If your book is primarily intended for students, please describe the courses that should adopt it.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''4. Author Information: Give a brief rundown of your occupation. Summarize your areas of expertise and explain why you are qualified to write the book. In addition, please submit a CV or resume.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''5. Marketing Platform: Describe your professional activities and writing experience (with a focus on books, articles, blogs). Have you been interviewed by the media on a topic related to your book or do you have other experience with media outreach? What is the size of your network (contacts who could helpwith the promotion of the book)? If you give lectures or workshops, include a summary of your activities for the past year. If you have a well-developed social media network, please explain.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''6. Competing/Comparable Titles: List any previously published titles that are similar to your book in topic, approach, or writing style (please specify which). What about your proposed book is different, timely, and important in comparison to existing print or online information on the topic? For course-adoption books, what is the primary benefit to an instructor in using your text rather than competing titles?''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''7. Production Considerations: Estimate when you plan to complete your manuscript. Estimate the manuscript’s word count and the number of photographs and other illustrations (maps, diagrams, graphs, etc.) that you plan to include. Please include sample images.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''8. Course Materials: If your book is intended primarily for course use, please describe any ancillary material you would be willing to share (PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, study questions, charts, graphs, pictures, videos).''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''9. Writing Samples: If you have already drafted book chapters, or have writing samples that are germane to your proposed subject, please include them with the proposal.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''10. Submission: If you are submitting files larger than 2MB(high-resolution art samples for example), please send them via a file-sharing service such as Box, Dropbox, or WeTransfer.''
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
''11. Is there any other information that would be helpful to us as we consider your project?''<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
  
 
----
 
----
Line 585: Line 923:
  
 
*Abarbanel, Sara, and Cassandra Bayer, Paloma Corcuera, Nancy Stetson (Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley) [2016]. "Making a Tiny Deal Out of It: A Feasibility Study of Tiny Home Villages to Increase Affordable Housing in Lane County, Oregon." A Report for United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Portland, Oregon Field Office. May 2016. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Abarbanel, Sara, and Cassandra Bayer, Paloma Corcuera, Nancy Stetson (Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley) [2016]. "Making a Tiny Deal Out of It: A Feasibility Study of Tiny Home Villages to Increase Affordable Housing in Lane County, Oregon." A Report for United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, Portland, Oregon Field Office. May 2016. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Abbott, Carl (1994). "Metropolitan Portland: Reputation and Reality." ''Built Environment'', Vol. 20, No. 1, (1994), pp. 52-64 [https://www.jstor.org/stable/23287727 https://www.jstor.org/stable/23287727]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=13FpPqg_NW0HzyjUti2-0ued7eu_IORQ2. https://drive.google.com/open?id=13FpPqg_NW0HzyjUti2-0ued7eu_IORQ2.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Abbott, Carl and Deborah Howe. "The Politics of Land-Use Law in Oregon: Senate Bill 100, Twenty Years After." ''Oregon Historical Quarterly'', Vol. 94, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 4-35. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/20614497 https://www.jstor.org/stable/20614497]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1QoDK-YPGIrYFMDiJmzP9gt-Agf_jRhRS. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1QoDK-YPGIrYFMDiJmzP9gt-Agf_jRhRS.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Abrams, Charles. ''Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World''. (1964).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Abrams, Charles. ''Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World''. (1964).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams. &nbsp; &nbsp;<br/> ___.&nbsp;''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building'', 1979<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams. &nbsp; &nbsp;<br/> ___.&nbsp;''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building'', 1979<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Alexander, Lisa T [2015]. &nbsp;"[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing]."&nbsp;94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at:&nbsp;[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Alexander, Lisa T [2015]. &nbsp;"[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing]."&nbsp;94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at:&nbsp;[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Anson, April. (2014). The World in my Backyard”: Romanticization, Thoreauvian Rhetoric, and Constructive Confrontation in the Tiny House Movement”. ''Research in Urban Sociology, ''14, 289–314. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1047-004220140000014013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1047-004220140000014013]. [paywalled].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Anson, April. (2014). The World in my Backyard”: Romanticization, Thoreauvian Rhetoric, and Constructive Confrontation in the Tiny House Movement”. Research in Urban Sociology, 14, 289–314. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1047-004220140000014013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1047-004220140000014013]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1F_bEq5Ba81Ahom-npyfx5cF_wtbP9Szu. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1F_bEq5Ba81Ahom-npyfx5cF_wtbP9Szu.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Aquilino, Marie, ed. ''Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity''. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).<br/> ISBN 9781935202479.&nbsp;[https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Shelter-Architecture-Human-Dignity/dp/1935202472 [1]].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 1. Architecture after disaster&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --<br/> Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --<br/> News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --<br/> From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 2. What should governments do?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --<br/> Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --<br/> What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 3. Urban risk and recovery&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --<br/> Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --<br/> Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --<br/> Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --<br/> Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 4. Environmental resilience&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --<br/> The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --<br/> Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --<br/> On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 5. Teaching as strategic action&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --<br/> Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --<br/> Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 6. Is prevention possible?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --<br/> Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --<br/> Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --<br/> Afterword&nbsp;:&nbsp;<br/> Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Aquilino, Marie, ed. ''Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity''. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).<br/> ISBN 9781935202479.&nbsp;[https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Shelter-Architecture-Human-Dignity/dp/1935202472 [1]].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 1. Architecture after disaster&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --<br/> Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --<br/> News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --<br/> From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 2. What should governments do?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --<br/> Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --<br/> What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 3. Urban risk and recovery&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --<br/> Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --<br/> Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --<br/> Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --<br/> Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 4. Environmental resilience&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --<br/> The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --<br/> Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --<br/> On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 5. Teaching as strategic action&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --<br/> Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --<br/> Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 6. Is prevention possible?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --<br/> Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --<br/> Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --<br/> Afterword&nbsp;:&nbsp;<br/> Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. ''Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis''. 2006.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. ''Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis''. 2006.<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 595: Line 935:
 
*Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, & Jeremy Till. ''Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture'' (Routledge, 2011). &nbsp;See also Spatial Agency site:&nbsp;[https://www.spatialagency.net/about/ https://www.spatialagency.net/about/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Awan, Nishat, Tatjana Schneider, & Jeremy Till. ''Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture'' (Routledge, 2011). &nbsp;See also Spatial Agency site:&nbsp;[https://www.spatialagency.net/about/ https://www.spatialagency.net/about/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bagshaw, Sally. (2014). “Building on Quixote Village: Divvy Up the Responsibility”. Published online February 25, 2014 on Sally Bagshaw's Seattle City Council site. [http://bagshaw.seattle.gov/2014/02/25/building-on-quixote-village-divvy-up-the-responsibility/ http://bagshaw.seattle.gov/2014/02/25/building-on-quixote-village-divvy-up-the-responsibility/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bagshaw, Sally. (2014). “Building on Quixote Village: Divvy Up the Responsibility”. Published online February 25, 2014 on Sally Bagshaw's Seattle City Council site. [http://bagshaw.seattle.gov/2014/02/25/building-on-quixote-village-divvy-up-the-responsibility/ http://bagshaw.seattle.gov/2014/02/25/building-on-quixote-village-divvy-up-the-responsibility/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Barron, Patrick, and Manuela Mariani, eds (2014). ''Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale''. New York: Routledge, 2014.&nbsp;&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cEpJPkMkoD3O4n9RWXZg6u5oglqow_ey https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cEpJPkMkoD3O4n9RWXZg6u5oglqow_ey].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Baumohl, Jim, ed, for the National Coalition for the Homeless.&nbsp;''Homelessness in America.&nbsp;''Oryx Press, 1996.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Beard, Victoria A. (2003). "Learning Radical Planning: The Power of Collective Action." ''Planning Theory'', Vol 2, Issue 1, 2003. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095203002001004 https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095203002001004]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1xambbnQ0FiW6riVM1cooK0_J5HVD75JU. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1xambbnQ0FiW6riVM1cooK0_J5HVD75JU.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Beard, Victoria A. (2003). "Learning Radical Planning: The Power of Collective Action." ''Planning Theory'', Vol 2, Issue 1, 2003. [https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095203002001004 https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095203002001004]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1xambbnQ0FiW6riVM1cooK0_J5HVD75JU. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1xambbnQ0FiW6riVM1cooK0_J5HVD75JU.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." ''The Seattle Times'', 26 February 2016. [https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/ https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." ''The Seattle Times'', 26 February 2016. [https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/ https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/].<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 600: Line 942:
 
*Bell, Bryan, and Katie Wakeford, Steve Badanes (2008). ''Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism''. Metropolis Books, 2008.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bell, Bryan, and Katie Wakeford, Steve Badanes (2008). ''Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism''. Metropolis Books, 2008.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bernheimer, Lily. "The Shape of (Housing) Things to Come." ''Next City'', Sep 30, 2019. [https://nextcity.org/features/view/the-shape-of-housing-things-to-come https://nextcity.org/features/view/the-shape-of-housing-things-to-come]. [excerpted from book by Bernheimer, ''The Shaping of Us: How Everyday Spaces Structure Our Lives, Behavior, and Well-Being'', 2019]. &nbsp;On Alastair Parvin, WikiHouse, and Citizen Sector home-building approach.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bernheimer, Lily. "The Shape of (Housing) Things to Come." ''Next City'', Sep 30, 2019. [https://nextcity.org/features/view/the-shape-of-housing-things-to-come https://nextcity.org/features/view/the-shape-of-housing-things-to-come]. [excerpted from book by Bernheimer, ''The Shaping of Us: How Everyday Spaces Structure Our Lives, Behavior, and Well-Being'', 2019]. &nbsp;On Alastair Parvin, WikiHouse, and Citizen Sector home-building approach.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990.&nbsp;[https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/files/mchg/how_the_other_half_builds_ssp.pdf https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/files/mchg/how_the_other_half_builds_ssp.pdf].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Blanchard, Dave. [2012].&nbsp;"Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. ''OPB Think Out Loud'', October 3rd 2012.&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/ https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/].<br/> MP3: [https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3 https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Blanchard, Dave. [2012].&nbsp;"Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. ''OPB Think Out Loud'', October 3rd 2012.&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/ https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/].<br/> MP3: [https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3 https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Boden, Paul, et al (2015). ''House Keys Not Handcuffs''. Freedom Voices, 2015. &nbsp;$19.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Boden, Paul, et al (2015). ''House Keys Not Handcuffs''. Freedom Voices, 2015. &nbsp;$19.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 611: Line 953:
 
*Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Burt, Martha, et al. "Helping America's Homeless: Emergency Shelter or Affordable Housing?" 7 (2001).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689. &nbsp;PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Calfee C, Weissman E (2012). "Permission to Transition: Zoning and the Transition Movement." Planning & Environmental Law 64(5):3-10. DOI: 10.1080/15480755.2012.683689. &nbsp;PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS https://drive.google.com/open?id=1qtdHsK2abJijrOoH0jvJa7aZhTBzJ4XS].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit." &nbsp;[https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/ https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/]. &nbsp;Accessed 19 November 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." ''Washington&nbsp;Unitversity Journal of&nbsp;Urban & Contemporary Law''. 25:235-268. [http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Chernoff S (1983). "Behind the Smokescreen: Exclusionary Zoning of Mobile Homes." ''Washington&nbsp;University Journal of&nbsp;Urban & Contemporary Law''. 25:235-268. [http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1442&context=law_urbanlaw].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chomei, Kamo, et al. ''Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike''. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chomei, Kamo, et al. ''Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike''. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Community Planning Workshop (University of Oregon). "Providing for the Unhoused: A Review of Transitional Housing Strategies in Eugene." October 2015. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VqcpQBWby0_uAUpWFsw26Mu4y6uvSHe1/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VqcpQBWby0_uAUpWFsw26Mu4y6uvSHe1/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Community Planning Workshop (University of Oregon). "Providing for the Unhoused: A Review of Transitional Housing Strategies in Eugene." October 2015. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VqcpQBWby0_uAUpWFsw26Mu4y6uvSHe1/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VqcpQBWby0_uAUpWFsw26Mu4y6uvSHe1/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 622: Line 965:
 
*Davis, Sam (2014). ''Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works.'' University of California Press (2004).<br/> ''"Written by an architect who has been designing and building affordable housing for thirty years, this well-illustrated book is both a call to create well-designed places for the homeless and a review of innovative and successful building designs that now serve diverse communities across the United States. Sam Davis argues for safe and functional architectural designs and programs that symbolically reintegrate the homeless into society in buildings that offer beauty, security, and hope to those most in need."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Davis, Sam (2014). ''Designing for the Homeless: Architecture That Works.'' University of California Press (2004).<br/> ''"Written by an architect who has been designing and building affordable housing for thirty years, this well-illustrated book is both a call to create well-designed places for the homeless and a review of innovative and successful building designs that now serve diverse communities across the United States. Sam Davis argues for safe and functional architectural designs and programs that symbolically reintegrate the homeless into society in buildings that offer beauty, security, and hope to those most in need."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*De Carlo, Giancarlo. "An Architecture of Participation." 1972.&nbsp;[a version is also in ''Perspecta'', 17 (1980), 74-79].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*De Carlo, Giancarlo. "An Architecture of Participation." 1972.&nbsp;[a version is also in ''Perspecta'', 17 (1980), 74-79].<br/> &nbsp;  
*De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in ''Architecture and Participation'', ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press / Taylor & Francis,&nbsp;2007), pp. 3-22.<br/> [https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf]  
+
*De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in ''Architecture and Participation'', ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press / Taylor & Francis,&nbsp;2007), pp. 3-22.<br/> [https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
*&nbsp;  
+
*DeFilippis, James. ''Unmaking Goliath: Community Control in the Face of Global Capital'' (2003). &nbsp;(Multcolib has ebook).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
+
*DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). ''The Community Development Reader'' (2nd edition, Routledge 2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
DeFilippis, James. ''Unmaking Goliath: Community Control in the Face of Global Capital'' (2003). &nbsp;(Multcolib has ebook).&nbsp;
+
*Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
+
*&nbsp;  
+
 
+
DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). ''The Community Development Reader'' (2nd edition, Routledge 2012).&nbsp;
+
 
+
*&nbsp;  
+
 
+
Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;
+
 
+
 
*Dignity Village. [https://dignityvillage.org/ Dignityvillage.org].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village. [https://dignityvillage.org/ Dignityvillage.org].<br/> &nbsp;  
*Dignity Village Council. "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-." (2003).&nbsp;<br/> [prepared in collaboration with Supporters including The City Repair Project].&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Dignity Village (2001). "Dignity Village 2001 & Beyond: Outline Strategies for a Sustainable Future." Prepared by Dignity Village residents and supporters for the City of Portland and its homeless residents. &nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/proposal/DignityProposal.html https://drive.google.com/open?id=1l5fo_SLimhc54znyTuf1I0YECo3sP21B.]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Dignity Village Council. "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-." (2003?).&nbsp;<br/> [prepared in collaboration with Supporters including The City Repair Project].&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B2jI5OLgYdyYfkYzV19fSF9oYTBPSTFlc3VUX29nSTdwWFdfc3BCeWZVak1jN25kLVYwR1U].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village Site Selection Committee, and Larson Legacy Foundation. "Dignity Village: Successes at Sunderland". &nbsp;June 5, 2002. [http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf. http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Dignity Village Site Selection Committee, and Larson Legacy Foundation. "Dignity Village: Successes at Sunderland". &nbsp;June 5, 2002. [http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf. http://dignity.scribble.com/docs/dignity_success_sunderland.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Dinh, Tran and Brewster, David and Fullerton, Anna and Huckaby, Greg and Parks, Mamie and Rankin, Sara and Ruan, Nantiya and Zwiebel, Elie (2018).&nbsp;"Yes, In My Backyard: Building ADUs to Address Homelessness. University of Denver Sturm College of Law Homeless Advocacy Policy Project, May 3, 2018.&nbsp;[https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173258 https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173258]&nbsp;or&nbsp;[https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3173258 http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3173258.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Elliott, Donald L., FAICP, and Peter Sullivan, AICP [2015]. "Tiny Houses, and the Not-So-Tiny Questions They Raise." Zoning Practice (American Planning Association), Issue Number 11, Tiny Houses (November 2015). [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JJ1uX9JeB-rzkYLsQd7dSp6JPmprrzM5/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JJ1uX9JeB-rzkYLsQd7dSp6JPmprrzM5/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Elliott, Donald L., FAICP, and Peter Sullivan, AICP [2015]. "Tiny Houses, and the Not-So-Tiny Questions They Raise." Zoning Practice (American Planning Association), Issue Number 11, Tiny Houses (November 2015). [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JJ1uX9JeB-rzkYLsQd7dSp6JPmprrzM5/view?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JJ1uX9JeB-rzkYLsQd7dSp6JPmprrzM5/view?usp=sharing].<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 644: Line 980:
 
*Evans, William N., and David C. Philips, Krista J. Ruffini. "Reducing and Preventing Homelessness: A Review of the Evidence and Charting a Research Agenda." NBER Working Paper No. 26232, September 2019. [https://www.nber.org/papers/w26232 https://www.nber.org/papers/w26232]<br/> (DOI): 10.3386/w26232. [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1sJ5FSfrtx5YE0i_AuacH7Yz_JNMOIfRn https://drive.google.com/open?id=1sJ5FSfrtx5YE0i_AuacH7Yz_JNMOIfRn].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Evans, William N., and David C. Philips, Krista J. Ruffini. "Reducing and Preventing Homelessness: A Review of the Evidence and Charting a Research Agenda." NBER Working Paper No. 26232, September 2019. [https://www.nber.org/papers/w26232 https://www.nber.org/papers/w26232]<br/> (DOI): 10.3386/w26232. [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1sJ5FSfrtx5YE0i_AuacH7Yz_JNMOIfRn https://drive.google.com/open?id=1sJ5FSfrtx5YE0i_AuacH7Yz_JNMOIfRn].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Fathy, Hassan.&nbsp;''Architecture for the Poor&nbsp;''(1968).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Fathy, Hassan.&nbsp;''Architecture for the Poor&nbsp;''(1968).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Feldman, Roberta M, and Sergio Palleroni, David Perkes, Bryan Bell. "Wisdom From the Field: Public Interest Architecture in Practice." 2013. [[Www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf|www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf]].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Feldman, Roberta M, and Sergio Palleroni, David Perkes, Bryan Bell. "Wisdom From the Field: Public Interest Architecture in Practice." 2013. [https://www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Ferry, Todd, and Sergio Palleroni. "Research + action: the first two years of the Center for Public Interest Design." in Wortham-Galvin, B.D., editor, ''Sustainable Solutions: Let Knowledge Serve the City'', 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Ferry, Todd, and Sergio Palleroni. "Research + action: the first two years of the Center for Public Interest Design." in Wortham-Galvin, B.D., editor, ''Sustainable Solutions: Let Knowledge Serve the City'', 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. [http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; "This review takes Rebuilding Communities [Vidal 1992] as a starting point to survey the community development literature, the community development field, and external environmental factors, in order to examine what has happened over the past fifteen years to shape the context in which urban community development corporations (CDCs) now operate. This paper is both a bounded literature review and an environmental scan. We identify categories of changes and influences on the community development field. We find that in the last fifteen years, the community development field has grown increasingly professionalized. Policy initiatives have also shaped the field. New evaluations of community development have been conducted and published. We now know much more about the potential and limits of CDCs than we did when the Rebuilding Communities (RC) study was launched in the late 1980s. At the same time, significant gaps in our knowledge of the community development field remain. In particular, there has been insufficient study of how the changes in this context have affected the work that CDCs do."<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. [http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; "This review takes Rebuilding Communities [Vidal 1992] as a starting point to survey the community development literature, the community development field, and external environmental factors, in order to examine what has happened over the past fifteen years to shape the context in which urban community development corporations (CDCs) now operate. This paper is both a bounded literature review and an environmental scan. We identify categories of changes and influences on the community development field. We find that in the last fifteen years, the community development field has grown increasingly professionalized. Policy initiatives have also shaped the field. New evaluations of community development have been conducted and published. We now know much more about the potential and limits of CDCs than we did when the Rebuilding Communities (RC) study was launched in the late 1980s. At the same time, significant gaps in our knowledge of the community development field remain. In particular, there has been insufficient study of how the changes in this context have affected the work that CDCs do."<br/> &nbsp;  
*Gabriele, Kristen Elizabeth [2014]. "Design & Management Strategies for Micro-housing Units in Transitional Villages for the Homeless: an Exploration of Prototypes at Opportunity Village Eugene." M.Arch A thesis for SUNY Buffalo, 1 September 2014. &nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"The findings from this study provide design alternatives that can lead to improved user satisfaction in micro-housing prototypes."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Gabriele, Kristen Elizabeth [2014]. "Design & Management Strategies for Micro-housing Units in Transitional Villages for the Homeless: an Exploration of Prototypes at Opportunity Village Eugene." M.Arch thesis for SUNY Buffalo, 1 September 2014. &nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1M8SsRA7-2us2BACTOSb7yxRweiBZu4V0/view?usp=sharing.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"The findings from this study provide design alternatives that can lead to improved user satisfaction in micro-housing prototypes."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Gans. Herbert J. (1972). "The Positive Functions of Poverty." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 2. (Sep., 1972), pp. 275-289. DOI: [https://doi.org/10.1086/225324 https://doi.org/10.1086/225324]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1WKowlKxe89TBf4HWMCgipAY_-c9a_YLR https://drive.google.com/open?id=1WKowlKxe89TBf4HWMCgipAY_-c9a_YLR].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Abstract: Mertonian functional analysis is applied to explain the persistence of poverty, and fifteen functions which poverty and the poor perform for the rest of American society, particularly the affluent, are identified and described. Functional alternatives which would substitute for these functions and make poverty unnecessary are suggested, but the most important alternatives are themselves dysfunctional for the affluent, since they require some redistribution of income and power. A functional analysis of poverty thus comes to many of the same conclusions as radical sociological analysis, demonstrating anew Merton's assertion that functionalism need not be conservative in ideological outlook or implication."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Gans. Herbert J. (1972). "The Positive Functions of Poverty." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 2. (Sep., 1972), pp. 275-289. DOI: [https://doi.org/10.1086/225324 https://doi.org/10.1086/225324]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1WKowlKxe89TBf4HWMCgipAY_-c9a_YLR https://drive.google.com/open?id=1WKowlKxe89TBf4HWMCgipAY_-c9a_YLR].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Abstract: Mertonian functional analysis is applied to explain the persistence of poverty, and fifteen functions which poverty and the poor perform for the rest of American society, particularly the affluent, are identified and described. Functional alternatives which would substitute for these functions and make poverty unnecessary are suggested, but the most important alternatives are themselves dysfunctional for the affluent, since they require some redistribution of income and power. A functional analysis of poverty thus comes to many of the same conclusions as radical sociological analysis, demonstrating anew Merton's assertion that functionalism need not be conservative in ideological outlook or implication."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Gifford, Laura Jane. "Planning for a Productive Paradise: Tom McCall and the Conservationist Tale of Oregon Land-Use Policy." ''Oregon Historical Quarterly'' , Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter 2014), pp. 470-501. Stable URL: [https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.115.4.0470 https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.115.4.0470]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=13c4zGoGxX3ZizhZPZ2TxS637ljBSUtCJ https://drive.google.com/open?id=13c4zGoGxX3ZizhZPZ2TxS637ljBSUtCJ].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Grabow, Stephen, and Allen Heskin. "Foundations for a Radical Concept of Planning." ''Journal of the American Institute of Planning'', vol. 39, no. 2, 1973:106-14. DOI: [https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367308977664. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367308977664.&nbsp;]<br/> PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Grabow, Stephen, and Allen Heskin. "Foundations for a Radical Concept of Planning." ''Journal of the American Institute of Planning'', vol. 39, no. 2, 1973:106-14. DOI: [https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367308977664. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944367308977664.&nbsp;]<br/> PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaser, Gary. ''Justiceville – L.A.'s Homeless City''&nbsp;(film recording) 1987.&nbsp;[https://www.cctv.org/watch-tv/programs/justiceville-–-las-homeless-city https://www.cctv.org/watch-tv/programs/justiceville-%E2%80%93-las-homeless-city].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaser, Gary. ''Justiceville – L.A.'s Homeless City''&nbsp;(film recording) 1987.&nbsp;[https://www.cctv.org/watch-tv/programs/justiceville-–-las-homeless-city https://www.cctv.org/watch-tv/programs/justiceville-%E2%80%93-las-homeless-city].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Gragg, Randy. "Guerrilla City." ''Architecture'', May 2002.&nbsp;<br/> [https://saveferalhumanhabitat.wordpress.com/2002/12/27/guerrilla-city-a-homeless-settlement-in-portland-has-its-own-government-urban-plan-and-skyline/ https://saveferalhumanhabitat.wordpress.com/2002/12/27/guerrilla-city-a-homeless-settlement-in-portland-has-its-own-government-urban-plan-and-skyline/].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; “In its ‘permasite’ configuration, Dignity Village could potentially be a working model for a new type of truly sustainable, high density and mixed use, organically developing urban village model. If developed according to Dignity Villages wishes, the village would enhance Portland’s reputation as being the most green city in America. ... Dignity Village hopes to become a demonstration site for solar and wind power, permaculture, environmental restoration, stormwater and greywater reuse and innovative use of recycled materials and alternative building techniques for construction.”<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Gragg, Randy. "Guerrilla City." ''Architecture'', May 2002.&nbsp;<br/> [https://saveferalhumanhabitat.wordpress.com/2002/12/27/guerrilla-city-a-homeless-settlement-in-portland-has-its-own-government-urban-plan-and-skyline/ https://saveferalhumanhabitat.wordpress.com/2002/12/27/guerrilla-city-a-homeless-settlement-in-portland-has-its-own-government-urban-plan-and-skyline/].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; “In its ‘permasite’ configuration, Dignity Village could potentially be a working model for a new type of truly sustainable, high density and mixed use, organically developing urban village model. If developed according to Dignity Villages wishes, the village would enhance Portland’s reputation as being the most green city in America. ... Dignity Village hopes to become a demonstration site for solar and wind power, permaculture, environmental restoration, stormwater and greywater reuse and innovative use of recycled materials and alternative building techniques for construction.”<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Grenell, Peter (1972). "Planning for Invisible People: Some Consequences of Bureaucratic Values and Practices." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, ''Freedom to Build'', 1972].&nbsp;<br/> Grenell notes in footnote "I am indebted to Cora Du Bois, Zemurray Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University (retired), for introducing me to the term 'invisible people.'"&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;''"Both countries have severe housing problems in spite of the United States' great wealth and India's surfeit of manpower. Leaders of both nations believe these problems can be solved through modern technology and organization if sufficient resources are available. A fundamental consequence of this optimistic view is an underestimation of the variability and complexity of human needs, and also of the great resource represented by the people themselves....The result of these attitudes and their underlying values is to make people seem 'invisible' to those persons -- chiefly members of large bureaucratic organizations -- whose professed task is to serve them. It is only when invisible people have made their presence felt, through political agitation or sheer force of numbers, that governments have been compelled to recognize their existence and to institute new or revised goals and programs. This is as true in India with its islands of affluence amidst a sea of poverty, as it is in the United States with its pockets of poverty in almost university plenty."&nbsp;''<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hailey, Charlie (2003). "Camp(site): architectures of duration and place." Ph.D dissertation, University of Florida, 2003. [https://archive.org/details/campsitearchitec00hail. https://archive.org/details/campsitearchitec00hail.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hailey, Charlie (2008). ''Campsite: Architectures of Duration and Place.'' Louisiana State University Press, 2008.&nbsp;[https://www.amazon.com/Campsite-Architectures-Duration-Place-Voices/dp/080713323X https://www.amazon.com/Campsite-Architectures-Duration-Place-Voices/dp/080713323X].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hamdi, Nabeel (1995). ''Housing without Houses: Participation, Flexibility, Enablement''. Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing (formerly Intermediate Technology Publications), The Schumacher Centre, 1995.&nbsp;[https://www.scribd.com/document/364607734/hamdi-nabeel-housing-without-houses-participation-flexibility-enablement https://www.scribd.com/document/364607734/hamdi-nabeel-housing-without-houses-participation-flexibility-enablement].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hamdi, Nabeel (2004). ''Small Change: About the art of practice and the limits of planning in cities''. London: Earthscan, 2004. [https://www.scribd.com/document/363933988/320473408-Hamdi-Small-Change-pdf https://www.scribd.com/document/363933988/320473408-Hamdi-Small-Change-pdf].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." ''The Oregonian'', April 27, 2019. [https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Harms, Hans H. "User and Community Involvement in Housing and Its Effect on Professionalism." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972]. &nbsp;<br/> ''"Problems of insufficiency and inadequacy are immanent in the present housing supply structure, which is oriented toward the supply side and the construction of units according to procedures set by industry and government, and which subsidized industry, professional 'facilitating beneficiaries,' and the rich in order to provide housing for the poor...Direct subsidies to users in combination with a network of decentralized services could increase the autonomy of low-income families without setting up complicated mechanisms to regulate the lives of the poor or the process by which housing for the poor is created."&nbsp;''<br/> Discusses&nbsp;1968 Tent City in Boston.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Harvey, David (1999). "Frontiers of insurgent planning" (1999).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Harvey, David (1999). "Frontiers of insurgent planning" (1999).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Harvey, David. ''Spaces of Hope'' (2000). [https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2017/SOC593/um/Harvey_2000_Spaces_of_Hope.pdf https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2017/SOC593/um/Harvey_2000_Spaces_of_Hope.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Harvey, David. ''Spaces of Hope'' (2000). [https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2017/SOC593/um/Harvey_2000_Spaces_of_Hope.pdf https://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2017/SOC593/um/Harvey_2000_Spaces_of_Hope.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 670: Line 1,014:
 
*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jones, Lucy. ''The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them)''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Jones, Lucy. ''The Big Ones: How Natural Disasters Have Shaped Us (and What We Can Do About Them)''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001.&nbsp;<br/> [http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/ http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 680: Line 1,025:
 
*Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." ''Dwell'', August 21, 2017. [https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lagdameo, Jennifer Baum. "How Tiny Pods Are the Future For Portland's Houseless Community." ''Dwell'', August 21, 2017. [https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5. https://www.dwell.com/article/how-tiny-pods-are-the-future-for-portlands-houseless-community-657aa4a5.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Lakeman, Mark. "Dignity Village 2001 and Beyond: Outlining Strategies for a Sustainable Future."<br/> &nbsp;  
*Loftus-Farren Z. (2011). “Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States”. ''California Law Review''. 99, no. 4: 1037-1082.<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Loftus-Farren, Zoe (2011). "Tent Cities: An Interim Solution to Homelessness and Affordable Housing Shortages in the United States." ''California Law Review'', Vol. 99, No. 4 (August 2011), pp. 1037-1081. [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1uVh5h2ApWpUkutmo224euDMyodPmQSYY https://drive.google.com/open?id=1uVh5h2ApWpUkutmo224euDMyodPmQSYY].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). [http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*MADWORKSHOP (Santa Monica). Homes for Hope project (2016-). [http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/. http://madworkshop.org/projects/homes-for-hope/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
*McCormick, Tim. "How might we put affordable housing on disused & small sites in San Francisco? ''Medium,&nbsp;''Nov 3, 2015.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061 https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*McCormick, Tim. "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book." London School of Economics, LSE Impact Blog, 17 January 2013. [https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/01/17/from-monograph-to-multigraph-the-distributed-book/ https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2013/01/17/from-monograph-to-multigraph-the-distributed-book/].<br/> &nbsp;
*McCormick, Tim [2015]. "Tiny Houses for the Homeless in San Francisco?" ''Medium,&nbsp;''Nov 18, 2015.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*McCormick, Tim (2015). "How might we put affordable housing on disused & small sites in San Francisco? ''Medium,&nbsp;''Nov 3, 2015.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061 https://medium.com/@tmccormick/how-might-we-put-affordable-housing-on-disused-small-sites-in-san-francisco-1bc74afca061].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*McCormick, Tim (2015). "Tiny Houses for the Homeless in San Francisco?" ''Medium,&nbsp;''Nov 18, 2015.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db https://medium.com/@tmccormick/tiny-houses-for-the-homeless-in-san-francisco-5c87ca5625db].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2016). "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. [http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2016). "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. [http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2016b). "Agile Housing -- a pattern language." 2016.&nbsp;[http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart. http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2016b). "Agile Housing -- a pattern language." 2016.&nbsp;[http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart. http://bit.ly/agile-housing-patterns-chart.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2018). "The New Urban Autonomous House."&nbsp;''Medium,&nbsp;''May 5, 2018.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152 https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCormick, Tim (2018). "The New Urban Autonomous House."&nbsp;''Medium,&nbsp;''May 5, 2018.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152 https://medium.com/@tmccormick/the-new-urban-autonomous-off-grid-house-484bc77df152].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*McCormick, Tim (2019). "New Starter Homes creating a network of highly affordable, detachable, ownable, 'starter,' smart, tiny homes in Portland." [project proposal, originally created for Meyer Memorial Trust's 2018 Million Month Challenge grant program, 2018].&nbsp;[http://bit.ly/levitatetown. http://bit.ly/levitatetown.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 
*McCulloch, Heather, with Lisa Robinson (2001). "Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms." Oakland, CA: PolicyLink. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from: www.policylink.org. [https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms].<br/> File: [https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*McCulloch, Heather, with Lisa Robinson (2001). "Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms." Oakland, CA: PolicyLink. Retrieved November 5, 2019, from: www.policylink.org. [https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms https://community-wealth.org/content/sharing-wealth-resident-ownership-mechanisms].<br/> File: [https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf https://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/tool-policylink-res-own.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Mehaffy, Michael M. (2019).&nbsp;''A Pattern Language for Growing Regions''. Sustasis Press, forthcoming 2019. [http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html http://www.sustasis.net/APLFGR.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Mingoya, Catherine. (2015). “Building Together. Tiny House Villages for the Homeless: A Comparative Case Study.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. &nbsp;[https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mingoya, Catherine. (2015). “Building Together. Tiny House Villages for the Homeless: A Comparative Case Study.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. &nbsp;[https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf https://dusp.mit.edu/sites/dusp.mit.edu/files/attachments/news/mingoya_2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." [https://mchg.ca/publications/ https://mchg.ca/publications/]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." [https://mchg.ca/publications/ https://mchg.ca/publications/]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mitchell, Ryan. ''Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mitchell, Ryan. ''Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
*Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. &nbsp;Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Monahan, Rachel (2017). "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. &nbsp;Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
*Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development. &nbsp;July 2008. [http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf. http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
+
*Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. ''Willamette Week'', 14 February 2018.&nbsp;[https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/ https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development. &nbsp;July 2008. [http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf. http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf.&nbsp;]  
 
*Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. [[10.15760/etd.36|10.15760/etd.36]].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. [[10.15760/etd.36|10.15760/etd.36]].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 707: Line 1,056:
 
*Palmeri, Jordan. (2012). “Small Homes: Benefits, Trends and Policies”. As presented by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.<br/> Retrieved from: [http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1. http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Palmeri, Jordan. (2012). “Small Homes: Benefits, Trends and Policies”. As presented by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.<br/> Retrieved from: [http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1. http://www.slideshare.net/ORDEQ/deq-building-lca-forwebsite-16minfinal1.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Parr, Evanie and Rankin, Sara (2018). "It Takes a Village: Practical Guide for Authorized Encampments." Seattle University Homeless Rights Advocacy Project, May 3, 2018.&nbsp;Available at SSRN:&nbsp;[https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173224 https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173224].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition."&nbsp;Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden.&nbsp;<br/> Presentation slides: [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf]<br/> Video: &nbsp;[https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/] (2:40 - 33:20).&nbsp;<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them&nbsp;<br/> as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now: &nbsp;we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition."&nbsp;Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden.&nbsp;<br/> Presentation slides: [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf]<br/> Video: &nbsp;[https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/] (2:40 - 33:20).&nbsp;<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them&nbsp;<br/> as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now: &nbsp;we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia. ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;11, No. 2, December 2017. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf].<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;''"Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia. ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;11, No. 2, December 2017. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf].<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;''"Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose."''<br/> &nbsp;  
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Parvin, Alastair, and David Saxby, Cristina Cerulli, Tatjana Schneider (2011). "A Right to Build: The next mass-housebuilding industry." Architecture 00 and University of Sheffield School of Architecture, 2011.&nbsp;[https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/arighttobuild https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/arighttobuild].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
*Parvin, Alastair. "Development without debt: Re-designing the way we invest in housing." Nesta.org.uk, 27 January 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/ https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/]<br/> ''Finance the homes separately from the land:''<br/> ''One of the most confusing (and dumb) characteristics of the ‘current trader’ model is that it bundles the cost of the land into the cost of development. By financing the home (a consumer durable) separately from the land (a licensed property asset), in many cases it is possible to massively improve affordability. This might include leasing the land rather than selling it (arguably far more responsible in the case of publicly-owned land), deferring purchase over time, or collective purchase of the land. For example, a neighbourhood development company can purchase the land, represent a more appealing prospect to investors, because the risk of defaulting is spread over the whole neighbourhood. Matthew Benson of Rettie’s has proposed the use of ‘land bonds’, whereby a neighbourhood development company (for example a cooperative) could finance the cost of land by issuing 25 year bonds."''<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve (2016). "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.&nbsp;<br/> [https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Parvin, Alastair (2017). "Development without debt: Re-designing the way we invest in housing." Nesta.org.uk, 27 January 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/ https://www.nesta.org.uk/blog/development-without-debt-re-designing-the-way-we-invest-in-housing/]<br/> ''Finance the homes separately from the land:''<br/> ''One of the most confusing (and dumb) characteristics of the ‘current trader’ model is that it bundles the cost of the land into the cost of development. By financing the home (a consumer durable) separately from the land (a licensed property asset), in many cases it is possible to massively improve affordability. This might include leasing the land rather than selling it (arguably far more responsible in the case of publicly-owned land), deferring purchase over time, or collective purchase of the land. For example, a neighbourhood development company can purchase the land, represent a more appealing prospect to investors, because the risk of defaulting is spread over the whole neighbourhood. Matthew Benson of Rettie’s has proposed the use of ‘land bonds’, whereby a neighbourhood development company (for example a cooperative) could finance the cost of land by issuing 25 year bonds."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Piven, F. F., & Cloward, R. (1971). ''Regulating the poor: the functions of public welfare''. Pantheon, 1971; 2nd ed Vintage Books, 1993.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;5, No. 2, December 2011. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Pleace, Nicholas. "The Ambiguities, Limits and Risks of Housing First from a European Perspective." ''European Journal of Homelessness'', Vol&nbsp;5, No. 2, December 2011. [https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf. https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-1-38189457923603932070.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" [https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." [https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019).&nbsp;"Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." ''Architecture Talk'' (podcast hosted by Prakash). &nbsp;March 13, 2019. [https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39 https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Prakash, Vikramaditya. (2019).&nbsp;"Public Interest Design with Sergio Palleroni." ''Architecture Talk'' (podcast hosted by Prakash). &nbsp;March 13, 2019. [https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39 https://www.architecturetalk.org/home/39].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Steven Raymond, Eric Steven (2003).''The Art of Unix Programming''. [https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html https://homepage.cs.uri.edu/~thenry/resources/unix_art/index.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Roy, Ananya (2003). “Paradigms Of Propertied Citizenship:&nbsp;Transnational Techniques of Analysis,” ''Urban Affairs Review,'' vol. 38, no. 4 (2003): 463–91. DOI: [http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250356 http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250356]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1e0iX1kzxDQ-6lGB9_851exaMiuRCfHRx. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1e0iX1kzxDQ-6lGB9_851exaMiuRCfHRx.&nbsp;]<br/> ''"Abstract: The American paradigm of propertied citizenship has far-reaching consequences for the propertyless, as in the brutal criminalization of the homeless. Activist groups, such as the anarchist squatter organization Homes Not Jails, have sought to challenge this paradigm through innovative techniques of property takeovers, invocations of American traditions of homesteading, and Third World tactics of self-help and informality. This study trains a transnational lens on both the paradigm and its subversions. Posing Third World questions of the First World, the author seeks to unsettle the normalized hierarchy of development and underdevelopment and explores lessons that can be learned from different modes of shelter struggles."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Roy, Ananya (2003). “Paradigms Of Propertied Citizenship:&nbsp;Transnational Techniques of Analysis,” ''Urban Affairs Review,'' vol. 38, no. 4 (2003): 463–91. DOI: [http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250356 http://doi.org/10.1177/1078087402250356]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1e0iX1kzxDQ-6lGB9_851exaMiuRCfHRx. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1e0iX1kzxDQ-6lGB9_851exaMiuRCfHRx.&nbsp;]<br/> ''"Abstract: The American paradigm of propertied citizenship has far-reaching consequences for the propertyless, as in the brutal criminalization of the homeless. Activist groups, such as the anarchist squatter organization Homes Not Jails, have sought to challenge this paradigm through innovative techniques of property takeovers, invocations of American traditions of homesteading, and Third World tactics of self-help and informality. This study trains a transnational lens on both the paradigm and its subversions. Posing Third World questions of the First World, the author seeks to unsettle the normalized hierarchy of development and underdevelopment and explores lessons that can be learned from different modes of shelter struggles."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Roy, Ananya Roy and Nezar AlSayyad, eds. (2004). ''Urban Informality''. Berkeley: University of California, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Roy, Ananya Roy and Nezar AlSayyad, eds. (2004). ''Urban Informality''. Berkeley: University of California, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019]. &nbsp;[https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019]. &nbsp;[https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Schmidt, Alexandra (2017). "The Big Politics of Tiny Houses: Zoning Villages for Homeless Individuals." Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Urban Studies, University of Michigan. April 2017. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Schmidt, Alexandra (2017). "The Big Politics of Tiny Houses: Zoning Villages for Homeless Individuals." Undergraduate Honors Thesis, Urban Studies, University of Michigan. April 2017. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Schumacher, E. F. (1973). S''mall Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as If People Mattered''. London: Blond and Briggs, 1973.&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1vx2sPpcSeAX1Mkvrxkmd54p8kdwWUEIb https://drive.google.com/open?id=1vx2sPpcSeAX1Mkvrxkmd54p8kdwWUEIb].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Segel, Ginger (2015). "Tiny Houses: A Permanent Supportive Housing Model." Community Frameworks, (Bremerton & Spokane, Washington). Mar. 2015.&nbsp;[https://web.archive.org/web/20181221132510/http://www.communityframeworks.org:80/ws-main/docs/FINAL%20Tiny%20Homes%20White%20Paper%20March%202015.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20181221132510/http://www.communityframeworks.org:80/ws-main/docs/FINAL%20Tiny%20Homes%20White%20Paper%20March%202015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Segel, Ginger (2015). "Tiny Houses: A Permanent Supportive Housing Model." Community Frameworks, (Bremerton & Spokane, Washington). Mar. 2015.&nbsp;[https://web.archive.org/web/20181221132510/http://www.communityframeworks.org:80/ws-main/docs/FINAL%20Tiny%20Homes%20White%20Paper%20March%202015.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20181221132510/http://www.communityframeworks.org:80/ws-main/docs/FINAL%20Tiny%20Homes%20White%20Paper%20March%202015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Shearer, Heather & Paul Burton (2019). "Towards a Typology of Tiny Houses." ''Housing, Theory and Society'', 36:3, 298-318, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2018.1487879.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Shearer, Heather & Paul Burton (2019). "Towards a Typology of Tiny Houses." ''Housing, Theory and Society'', 36:3, 298-318, DOI: 10.1080/14036096.2018.1487879.<br/> &nbsp;  
*Shenk, Timothy (2015). "Booked #1: What’s Wrong With Community Development?" [interview with Daniel Immerwahr, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015). Dissent, January 29, 2015.<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; Immerwahr: "I want a left that can operate on all scales. And part of that involves giving up this uncritical deference to 'communities.'"<br/> &nbsp;
+
*Shenk, Timothy (2015). "Booked #1: What’s Wrong With Community Development?" [interview with Daniel Immerwahr, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015). Dissent, January 29, 2015.&nbsp;[https://www.dissentmagazine.org/blog/booked-1-whats-wrong-with-community-development https://www.dissentmagazine.org/blog/booked-1-whats-wrong-with-community-development].<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; Immerwahr: "I want a left that can operate on all scales. And part of that involves giving up this uncritical deference to 'communities.'"  
*&nbsp;
+
*Silverman, R. M. (2005). Caught in the Middle: Community Development Corporations (CDCs) and the Conflict between Grassroots and Instrumental Forms of Citizen Participation. Journal of the Community Development Society, 36 (2): 35-51. [http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/silverman05.pdf. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/silverman05.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"This article examines the role of citizen participation in community development corporations (CDC). It is argued that CDCs are caught between two distinct forms of participation: instrumental participation that focuses on activities that support project and program activities of CDCs, and grassroots participation that focuses on expanding the role of citizens in local decision-making processes. A continuum based on these two forms of citizen participation is introduced. It is suggested that CDCs are often in the middle of the continuum where they must balance pressures to expand the scope of grassroots participation against the need to use citizen participation techniques to facilitate project and program implementation. The article is based on a series of in-depth interviews with the executive directors of CDCs in Detroit, Michigan. Recommendations growing out of the research focus on how the tendency toward conflicts between the instrumental goals of CDCs and the longstanding value of grassroots activism can be managed better."<br/> &nbsp;  
 
+
*Simon, William H. (2002). ''The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy''. Duke University Press, 2002. &nbsp;$5.11<br/> &nbsp;
Silverman, R. M. (2005). Caught in the Middle: Community Development Corporations (CDCs) and the Conflict between Grassroots and Instrumental Forms of Citizen Participation. Journal of the Community Development Society, 36 (2): 35-51. [http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/silverman05.pdf. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/silverman05.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; "This article examines the role of citizen participation in community development corporations (CDC). It is argued that CDCs are caught between two distinct forms of participation: instrumental participation that focuses on activities that support project and program activities of CDCs, and grassroots participation that focuses on expanding the role of citizens in local decision-making processes. A continuum based on these two forms of citizen participation is introduced. It is suggested that CDCs are often in the middle of the continuum where they must balance pressures to expand the scope of grassroots participation against the need to use citizen participation techniques to facilitate project and program implementation. The article is based on a series of in-depth interviews with the executive directors of CDCs in Detroit, Michigan. Recommendations growing out of the research focus on how the tendency toward conflicts between the instrumental goals of CDCs and the longstanding value of grassroots activism can be managed better."
+
 
+
*&nbsp;  
+
 
+
Simon, William H. (2002). &nbsp;The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002. &nbsp;$5.11
+
 
+
 
*Smith, Doug (2019). "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Smith, Doug (2019). "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Smock, Kristina (2010). "An Evaluation of Dignity Village." Prepared by Kristina Smock Consulting for the Portland Housing Bureau. February 2010. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing [1]].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Smock, Kristina (2010). "An Evaluation of Dignity Village." Prepared by Kristina Smock Consulting for the Portland Housing Bureau. February 2010. [https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weO2FSOZVYkxH3Wcb6xdDnFARW5oJnBO/view?usp=sharing [1]].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Sparks, Tony (2009). As Much Like Home as Possible: Geographies of Homelessness and Citizenship in Seattle’s Tent City 3 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2009). [https://geography.washington.edu/printpdf/research/graduate/tony-sparks-phd https://geography.washington.edu/printpdf/research/graduate/tony-sparks-phd].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Sparks, Tony (2009). As Much Like Home as Possible: Geographies of Homelessness and Citizenship in Seattle’s Tent City 3 (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 2009). [https://geography.washington.edu/printpdf/research/graduate/tony-sparks-phd https://geography.washington.edu/printpdf/research/graduate/tony-sparks-phd].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Spevak, Eli, and Madeline Kovacs, Orange Splot LLC. "Character-Compatible, Space-Efficient Housing Options for Single-Dwelling Neighborhoods." Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. May 2016. [https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/UP/Pages/Space-Efficient-Housing.aspx https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/UP/Pages/Space-Efficient-Housing.aspx]<br/> Cottage Clusters<br/> Internal Home Divisions<br/> Corner Duplexes<br/> Accessory Dwelling Units<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Spevak, Eli, and Madeline Kovacs, Orange Splot LLC. "Character-Compatible, Space-Efficient Housing Options for Single-Dwelling Neighborhoods." Oregon Transportation and Growth Management Program, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. May 2016. [https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/UP/Pages/Space-Efficient-Housing.aspx https://www.oregon.gov/lcd/UP/Pages/Space-Efficient-Housing.aspx]<br/> Cottage Clusters<br/> Internal Home Divisions<br/> Corner Duplexes<br/> Accessory Dwelling Units<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Spohn, Richard B. (1972). "The Owner-Builder: Legislative Analysis and Recommendation." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, ''Freedom to Build'', 1972].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*SquareOne Villages (2019). "1 Million Month Challenge: Affordable Together." post, February 28, 2019.&nbsp;[https://www.squareonevillages.org/single-post/2019/02/28/1-Million-Month-Challenge-Affordable-Together https://www.squareonevillages.org/single-post/2019/02/28/1-Million-Month-Challenge-Affordable-Together].&nbsp; [discusses their award of grant from the Meyer Trust's Million Month Challenge, and includes most of their grant proposal "Affordable Together: scaling a community-based approach to housing"; outline plans to develop Community Land Trust - Limited-Equity Co-op (CLT-LEV) model; describes planned outreach efforts including Toolbox and new&nbsp;Village Framework Plan&nbsp;planning tool].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*SquareOne Villages (2019). "1 Million Month Challenge: Affordable Together." post, February 28, 2019.&nbsp;[https://www.squareonevillages.org/single-post/2019/02/28/1-Million-Month-Challenge-Affordable-Together https://www.squareonevillages.org/single-post/2019/02/28/1-Million-Month-Challenge-Affordable-Together].&nbsp; [discusses their award of grant from the Meyer Trust's Million Month Challenge, and includes most of their grant proposal "Affordable Together: scaling a community-based approach to housing"; outline plans to develop Community Land Trust - Limited-Equity Co-op (CLT-LEV) model; describes planned outreach efforts including Toolbox and new&nbsp;Village Framework Plan&nbsp;planning tool].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Stevens, Robert William, and Ted Swisher, eds. (1986). ''Community Self-help Housing Manual: Partnership in Action''. Intermediate Technology Development Group of North America, 1986.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Stevens, Robert William, and Ted Swisher, eds. (1986). ''Community Self-help Housing Manual: Partnership in Action''. Intermediate Technology Development Group of North America, 1986.<br/> &nbsp;  
*&nbsp;
+
*Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22. &nbsp;[https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x]. PDF: [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AWgx3fj3cB2gPd33qq2EUKLfDU41-yQt. https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AWgx3fj3cB2gPd33qq2EUKLfDU41-yQt.&nbsp;]<br/> Abstract:<br/> "This paper questions the viability of an urban redevelopment model that relies on small communiry development corporations (CDCs) and proposes an alternative. Because most CDCs are severely undercapitalized, they can not keep up with accelerating decay. Their existence, and the emphasis placed on their supposed successes, allow elites to blame poor neighborhood CDCs rather than external conditions for redevelopment failure. The model also emphasizes that CDCs be community-based, but because their resource base is controlled from outside the neighborhood there is really very little community control over CDCs. CDCs may even delegitimize more empowerment-focused community organizing attempts by making them appear radical. Consequently, the CDC development process my actually disorganize poor communities by creating internal competition or disrupting social networks. An alternative model of neighborhood redevelopment is proposed which emphasizes community organizing, community-controlled planning, and high-capacity multi-local CDCs held accountable through a strong community organizing process."<br/> &nbsp;  
 
+
*Stohr, Kate, Cameron Sinclair, and Architecture for Humanity (2012). ''Design Like You Give a Damn {2}: Building Change from the Ground Up''. Abrams, 2012.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22.&nbsp;<br/> 10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x
+
*Stevens, Robert William,&nbsp;& Ted Swisher (1986).&nbsp;''Community Self-Help Housing Manual, Revised Edition''. Intermediate Technology Development Group, for&nbsp;Habitat for Humanity, 1986. (original edition: 1982).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
+
*&nbsp;  
+
 
+
Stohr, Kate, Cameron Sinclair, and Architecture for Humanity (2012). ''Design Like You Give a Damn {2}: Building Change from the Ground Up''. Abrams, 2012.&nbsp;
+
 
+
 
*Tafari, Jack (2000a). "[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html We Need a Tent City]."&nbsp;''Street Roots&nbsp;''(Portland), October 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tafari, Jack (2000a). "[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html We Need a Tent City]."&nbsp;''Street Roots&nbsp;''(Portland), October 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. (2000b). "The future."&nbsp;''Street Roots,&nbsp;''December 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. (2000b). "The future."&nbsp;''Street Roots,&nbsp;''December 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. (2009). "A brief history of the Out of the Doorways campaign, part one." Street Roots, 6 Dec 2009.<br/> [https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. (2009). "A brief history of the Out of the Doorways campaign, part one." Street Roots, 6 Dec 2009.<br/> [https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Teige, Karel (1932).&nbsp;''The Minimum Dwelling''. 1932.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Teige, Karel (1932).&nbsp;''The Minimum Dwelling''. 1932.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Terner, Ian Donald. "Technology and Autonomy." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972].&nbsp;<br/> https://drive.google.com/open?id=1t48A9GbiPA44EHcCD7i3S-WotbsZhwj6.<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Tsemberis S. (1999) From Streets to Homes: An Innovative Approach to Supported Housing for Homeless Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities, ''Journal of Community Psychology'' 27(2) pp.225–241. [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DQyYJZLlx-tn7nwNQ68US7rD3DWQmbAq https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DQyYJZLlx-tn7nwNQ68US7rD3DWQmbAq].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tsemberis S. (1999) From Streets to Homes: An Innovative Approach to Supported Housing for Homeless Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities, ''Journal of Community Psychology'' 27(2) pp.225–241. [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DQyYJZLlx-tn7nwNQ68US7rD3DWQmbAq https://drive.google.com/open?id=1DQyYJZLlx-tn7nwNQ68US7rD3DWQmbAq].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tsemberis, S. (2010a) Housing First: Ending Homelessness, Promoting Recovery and Reducing Costs, in: I. Gould Ellen and B. O’Flaherty (Eds.) ''How to House the Homeless'' (New York: Russell Sage Foundation). [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45532548_Housing_First_Ending_Homelessness_Promoting_Recovery_and_Reducing_Costs https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45532548_Housing_First_Ending_Homelessness_Promoting_Recovery_and_Reducing_Costs].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tsemberis, S. (2010a) Housing First: Ending Homelessness, Promoting Recovery and Reducing Costs, in: I. Gould Ellen and B. O’Flaherty (Eds.) ''How to House the Homeless'' (New York: Russell Sage Foundation). [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45532548_Housing_First_Ending_Homelessness_Promoting_Recovery_and_Reducing_Costs https://www.researchgate.net/publication/45532548_Housing_First_Ending_Homelessness_Promoting_Recovery_and_Reducing_Costs].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tsemberis, S. (2010b) Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction (Hazelden: Minnesota).<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Tsemberis, S. (2010b) Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction (Hazelden: Minnesota).<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Turner, Jody (2013). "Collaborative Design Tackles Homelessness" ["A group designing innovative support systems in Portland, Ore., is identifying better ways of living for the homeless and for communities at large]. ''Stanford Social Innovation Review'', Jan. 15, 2013. [https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collaborative_design_tackles_homelessness https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collaborative_design_tackles_homelessness]. [on Rethinking Shelter project].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Turner, Jody (2013). "Collaborative Design Tackles Homelessness" ["A group designing innovative support systems in Portland, Ore., is identifying better ways of living for the homeless and for communities at large]. ''Stanford Social Innovation Review'', Jan. 15, 2013. [https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collaborative_design_tackles_homelessness https://ssir.org/articles/entry/collaborative_design_tackles_homelessness]. [on Rethinking Shelter project].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Turner, John F. C., ed (1972a). ''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process''.1972.<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Turner, John F.C. (archive). "John F.C. Turner Archive" (at CommunityPlanning.net). &nbsp;[http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/ http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/]<br/> &nbsp;
*Turner, John F. C. (1972b). "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed.&nbsp;''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process'' (1972).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Turner, John (1968). "The Squatter Settlement: An Architecture that Works." ''Architectural Design'', August 1968 (special issue: "Architecture of Democracy"). [http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/pdfs/ADAug1968SquatterSettlement.pdf http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/pdfs/ADAug1968SquatterSettlement.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;
*Turner, John F. C. (1976).&nbsp;''Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments''.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Turner, John F. C., and Robert Fichter, eds (1972). ''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process''.1972.<br/> [https://drive.google.com/open?id=1-oXUUW-XB4X2OjMptJCLt0aPZ3FEZBUA https://drive.google.com/open?id=1-oXUUW-XB4X2OjMptJCLt0aPZ3FEZBUA] (PDF 49MB).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Turner, John F. C. (1972). "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed.&nbsp;''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process'' (1972).&nbsp;<br/> [http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/pdfs/FreedomtoBuildCh7.pdf http://www.communityplanning.net/JohnFCTurnerArchive/pdfs/FreedomtoBuildCh7.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Turner, John F. C. (1976).&nbsp;''Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments''.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.<br/> [https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDM2ZLNmlvakJWcFE https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDM2ZLNmlvakJWcFE].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (2015). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) (2015). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2016). "Housing First Checklist: Assessing Projects and Systems for a Housing First Orientation." (updated 2016). [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Housing_First_Checklist_FINAL.pdf. https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Housing_First_Checklist_FINAL.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2016). "Housing First Checklist: Assessing Projects and Systems for a Housing First Orientation." (updated 2016). [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Housing_First_Checklist_FINAL.pdf. https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Housing_First_Checklist_FINAL.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2018). Home Together: The Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness. July 18, 2018. [https://www.usich.gov/home-together. https://www.usich.gov/home-together.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (2018). Home Together: The Federal Strategic Plan to Prevent and End Homelessness. July 18, 2018. [https://www.usich.gov/home-together. https://www.usich.gov/home-together.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Urban Land Institute. "Deal Profile: Jolene's First Cousin." ULI. [https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/ https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/]. Undated, accessed 18 November 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Vail K (2016). "Saving the American Dream: The Legalization of the Tiny House Movement." ''U.Louisville L.Rev.'' 54: 357. [http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/branlaj54&div=18&g_sent=1&collection=journals http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/branlaj54&div=18&g_sent=1&collection=journals].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Vail K (2016). "Saving the American Dream: The Legalization of the Tiny House Movement." ''U.Louisville L.Rev.'' 54: 357. [http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/branlaj54&div=18&g_sent=1&collection=journals http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/branlaj54&div=18&g_sent=1&collection=journals].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Vasudevan, Alex. (2017). ''The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting''. 2017.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Vasudevan, Alex. (2017). ''The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting''. 2017.<br/> &nbsp;  
Line 777: Line 1,126:
 
*___. "Jack Tafari."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari]. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. "Jack Tafari."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari]. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. "Dome City."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome_Village https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome_Village]. Accessed 18 Nov 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*___. "Dome City."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome_Village https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dome_Village]. Accessed 18 Nov 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Willse, Craig. The Value of Homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Willse, Craig (2010). "Neo-liberal Biopolitics and the Invention of Chronic Homelessness." ''Economy and Society'' 39, No. 2 (2010): 155-84. &nbsp;[https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228340557_Neo-liberal_biopolitics_and_the_invention_of_chronic_homelessness https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228340557_Neo-liberal_biopolitics_and_the_invention_of_chronic_homelessness].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Willse, Craig (2015). ''The Value of Homelessness: Managing Surplus Life in the United States''. University of Minnesota Press, 2015.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Wyatt, Anne (2014) "Rethinking Shelter and Tiny House Communities: Dignity Village, Portland, and Lessons from San Luis Obispo," Focus: Vol. 11: Issue&nbsp;1, Article 14.&nbsp;[http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14 http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14].  
 
*Wyatt, Anne (2014) "Rethinking Shelter and Tiny House Communities: Dignity Village, Portland, and Lessons from San Luis Obispo," Focus: Vol. 11: Issue&nbsp;1, Article 14.&nbsp;[http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14 http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/focus/vol11/iss1/14].  
 
&nbsp;
 
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 786: Line 1,134:
 
= Acknowledgements &nbsp;&nbsp; =
 
= Acknowledgements &nbsp;&nbsp; =
  
''Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:''<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.<br/> Sue Gemmell.<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.<br/> Sarah Iannarone.<br/> Margarette Leite, Center for Public Interest Design<br/> MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.<br/> Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
+
''Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:''<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.<br/> Sue Gemmell, Portland.<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.<br/> Sarah Iannarone. Portland activist & 2020 mayoral candidate.&nbsp;<br/> Mark Lakeman, Communitecture / City Repair Project, Portland<br/> Margarette Leite, PSU Center for Public Interest Design<br/> Michael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.<br/> Julia Mollner, Carleton Hart Architecture & PSU Center for Public Interest Design<br/> Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;<br/> Alastair Parvin,&nbsp;Open Systems Lab, London.<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.<br/> Sherry Shultz,&nbsp;Springfield/Eugene MicroDwellers.<br/> Eli Spevak, Portland Planning and&nbsp;Sustainability Commission.
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 797: Line 1,147:
  
 
- review&nbsp;''Tent City Urbanism,&nbsp;''and references section.&nbsp;<br/> - research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven&nbsp;<br/> - villagebuildings twitter.<br/> - VB logo?<br/> - VB domain registration<br/> - VB site&nbsp;
 
- review&nbsp;''Tent City Urbanism,&nbsp;''and references section.&nbsp;<br/> - research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven&nbsp;<br/> - villagebuildings twitter.<br/> - VB logo?<br/> - VB domain registration<br/> - VB site&nbsp;
 +
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 +
== Potential research visits ==
 +
 +
Jolene's First Cousin project, Portland
 +
 +
Kenton Women's Village new site.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Seattle - LIHI, current villages, BLOCK Project, prefab ADU developers.
 +
 +
Eugene & Cottage Grove - update on SquareOne Villages projects.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Tiny House Villages in north Bay / Sonoma?&nbsp; (Darin Dinsmore)
 +
 +
Oakland - Community Cabin sites, Safe Parking sites.&nbsp;
 +
 +
Fresno - any tiny-house-on-wheels ADUs?
 +
 +
Los Angeles - Skid Row
 +
 +
Las Vegas -&nbsp;Llamalopolis / Airstream Park.<br/> [https://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/llamalopolis-an-urban-tiny-living-oasis/ https://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/llamalopolis-an-urban-tiny-living-oasis/]&nbsp;(2016 article with lots of photographs).&nbsp;
 +
 +
Vancouver, B.C. - Temporary Modular Housing projects.&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
Line 805: Line 1,179:
  
 
*Palleroni, Sergio, & Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum (2004). S''tudio at large: Architecture in Service of Global Communities.&nbsp;''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Palleroni, Sergio, & Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum (2004). S''tudio at large: Architecture in Service of Global Communities.&nbsp;''<br/> &nbsp;  
*Grabow, Stephen, and Allen Heskin (1973). "Foundations for a Radical Concept of Planning." &nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu https://drive.google.com/open?id=1CxzvzpiRj7X0TVGvgdEHNYLbZ-iCjvOu].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Moore, Steven A, and Sergio Palleroni, eds. "The Alley Flat Initiative: Topics in Sustainable Development 2008 Report." University of Texas at Austin, School of Architecture, Center for Sustainable Development. &nbsp;July 2008. [http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf. http://251.sustainablesources.com/alleyflat2016demo/af-content/uploads/2016/02/AFI-SOA-2008-report.pdf.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Davis. Shelter After Disaster (1978).&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog].<br/> &nbsp;
 
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016.&nbsp;[https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "[https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland Affordable Land]." 2018. [https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
*Davies, Daniel (series creator). "Rebel Architecture." Al Jazeera English, 2014-16.<br/> [https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/rebelarchitecture/ https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/rebelarchitecture/]. ["A six-part [or more?] documentary series profiling architects who are using design as a form of activism and resistance to tackle the world's urban, environmental and social crises"].<br/> &nbsp;
 
 
*De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in ''Architecture and Participation'', ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press, 2007), pp. 3-22.&nbsp;[https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*De Carlo, Giancarlo, "Architecture's Public" (1969). in ''Architecture and Participation'', ed. by Peter Blundell Jones, Doina Petrescu and Jeremy Till (Abingdon: Spon Press, 2007), pp. 3-22.&nbsp;[https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf https://architecturesofspatialjustice.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/w08_dicarlo_architectures_public.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*reread: Herring, Chris. "T[https://www.academia.edu/15061831/The_New_Logics_of_Homeless_Seclusion_Homeless_Encampments_in_America_s_West_Coast_Cities_2014_City_and_Community_Vol_13_No._4_285-309 he New Logics of Homeless Seclusion:Homeless Encampments in America's West Coast Cities]." City & Community 13.4 (2014): 285-309. Web. 20 Feb 2017.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
*Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. ''Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis''. 2006.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. ''Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis''. 2006.<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Davis. Shelter After Disaster (1978).&nbsp;[https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog https://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Davies, Daniel (series creator). "Rebel Architecture." Al Jazeera English, 2014-16.<br/> [https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/rebelarchitecture/ https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/rebelarchitecture/]. ["A six-part [or more?] documentary series profiling architects who are using design as a form of activism and resistance to tackle the world's urban, environmental and social crises"].<br/> &nbsp;
 
*special issue of Urban Planning journal:&nbsp;"Housing Builds Cities" (ed. by&nbsp;[https://twitter.com/ortelli_luca @ortelli_luca], Chiara Monterumisi and Alessandro Porotto) Exploring [https://twitter.com/hashtag/Existenzminimum?src=hashtag_click #Existenzminimum] world-wide from the first steps of the CIAMs to the 1929 aftermath and more.&nbsp;[https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/issue/view/134 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/issue/view/134]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*special issue of Urban Planning journal:&nbsp;"Housing Builds Cities" (ed. by&nbsp;[https://twitter.com/ortelli_luca @ortelli_luca], Chiara Monterumisi and Alessandro Porotto) Exploring [https://twitter.com/hashtag/Existenzminimum?src=hashtag_click #Existenzminimum] world-wide from the first steps of the CIAMs to the 1929 aftermath and more.&nbsp;[https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/issue/view/134 https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/issue/view/134]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Abrams, Charles. ''Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World''. (1964).&nbsp; (especially on Core Housing).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Abrams, Charles. ''Man's Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World''. (1964).&nbsp; (especially on Core Housing).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Spatial Agency site: [https://www.spatialagency.net/about/ [4]].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Spatial Agency site: [https://www.spatialagency.net/about/ [4]].&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*reread: Herring, Chris. "T[https://www.academia.edu/15061831/The_New_Logics_of_Homeless_Seclusion_Homeless_Encampments_in_America_s_West_Coast_Cities_2014_City_and_Community_Vol_13_No._4_285-309 he New Logics of Homeless Seclusion:Homeless Encampments in America's West Coast Cities]." City & Community 13.4 (2014): 285-309. Web. 20 Feb 2017.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 
 
*reread:&nbsp;Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." &nbsp;in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*reread:&nbsp;Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." &nbsp;in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> <s>[get from storage or shelves]</s><br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> <s>[get from storage or shelves]</s><br/> &nbsp;  

Latest revision as of 17:07, 21 November 2019

Village Buildings cover mockup 1

Village Buildings: West Coast housing from the bottom up.  

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy grant funding.  Alternate titles: Revillaging the World.
by Tim McCormick. Last update: 21 November, 2019. 

This page is book draft / outline, linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 
 

Contents

Introduction / background

Prefatory quote ideas

Colin Ward on J.F.C. Turner - a philosopher of housing
J.F.C. Turner 
Teddy Cruz quotes from 2012 OPB interview. 
William Morris
Jack Tafari 
John Brinckerhoff Jackson

"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency." 
- Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946. 

"In the broadest sense, the goal of urban planning is to facilitate communication." 
     - Carl Abbott, PhD, Professor & Chair, College of Planning & Public Health, Portland State University. (ca 2004). Used as prefatory quote in 2004 "Dignity Village Proposal, 2004-" by Dignity Village Council and City Repair Project. 

 "I want a left that can operate on all scales."
     - Daniel Immerwarh, author of Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (2015).

"Distrust all claims for 'one true way.'"
    Unix "Rule of Diversity", in e.g. E.S. Raymond, The Art of Unix Programming, 2003. 

"Liminality (from the Latin word for threshold) is a term..for a variety of states of passage, through which designated members of a given culture travel at specified times...Because they occupy no fixed status in the liminal state, they are considered ambiguous beings--even dangerous--and their presence is subject to ritual regulation. Special precautions are taken to separate them from ordinary social life...[Liminal states] share a suspension of the commonplace; intermingling with unfamiliar others in strange settings; and a heightened sense of uncertainty, of things being unfinished and in process.  Although liminal passages are usually undertaken in well-mapped territory from which the voyager is expected to return, occasionally the process stalls....We will argue that what unites the phenomena gathered up in the term homelessness is liminality (resolved or stalled) and abeyance gone awry." 
   - Kim Hopper & Jim Baumohl. "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness." in [Baumohl 1996]. 

"this activity...to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models....The future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 
 - Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at PSU CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012].

"We all live in a state of ambitious poverty." ("Hic vivimus ambitiosa paupertate omnes").
   -Juvenal‬, Satires

"What the poor need is not charity but capital, not caseworkers but co-workers. And what the rich need is a wise, honorable way of divesting themselves from their overabundance."
   - Millard Fuller, founder of Habitat for Humanity, in 1968 letter to Koinonia Farm community, proposing HfH. [quoted in Stevens & Swisher, Community Self-Help Housing Manual, published by Habitat for Humanity in 1982].

"Pray to God, but row towards shore." 
     - Russian proverb.

 

Foreword / Preface ideas

Andrew Heben
Mark Lakeman
Sergio Palleroni
Todd Ferry 

Project goals 

Provide a successor to Tent City Urbanism (2014)

Examine recent developments such as POD Initiative, permanent villages

help to document & disseminate, as permanently and impactfully as possible, the work of housing innovators such as:

Build historical, global, and critical perspectives

  • developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.
  • Intermediate technologies / Appropriate technologies - E.F. Schumacher
  • Community Development [Housing] - CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s, pedagogical & social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!) perspectives. 
  • critiques of self-build and community development.  
  • surveying and responding to common objections / counterarguments. (anti-pattern language).
  • broad taxonomy of housing-affordability approaches. (see Appendix).

Suggest future paths - cluster housing, network villages, eco/resilient villages

 

Expanded project: help build knowledge/organizing network between allied organizations

e.g. with Village Collaborative, Village Coalition (Portland), LIHI (Seattle). 

Book as network: see also: "From Monograph to Multigraph: the Distributed Book" [McCormick 2013]. 

See also Ward Cunningham's work on Federated Wiki, use on A Pattern Language for Growing Regions (Mehaffy et al).  

Network participants: 

  • Village Collaborative
  • Tiny House networks, advocates -- American Tiny House Association, Tinyhouseblog (Alexis & __), etc. 
  • Center for Public Interest Design
  • Meyer Trust
  • AccessoryDwellings.org
  • Housing.wiki
  • A Pattern Language for Growing Regions
  • Wikipedia
  • Spatial Agency 
  • etc
  • see UK-based "Designing Buildings Wiki" as a model for an open knowledge-sharing network, also built on MediaWiki platform as is HousingWiki. 

 

 

Backgrounds & strands: Oregon planning, self-build/eco housing, etc 

 

Abbott, Carl (1994). "Metropolitan Portland: Reputation and Reality." Built Environment, Vol. 20, No. 1, (1994), pp. 52-64 https://www.jstor.org/stable/23287727. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=13FpPqg_NW0HzyjUti2-0ued7eu_IORQ2. 

Abbott, Carl and Deborah Howe. "The Politics of Land-Use Law in Oregon: Senate Bill 100, Twenty Years After." Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 4-35. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20614497. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1QoDK-YPGIrYFMDiJmzP9gt-Agf_jRhRS. 

Gifford, Laura Jane. "Planning for a Productive Paradise: Tom McCall and the Conservationist Tale of Oregon Land-Use Policy." Oregon Historical Quarterly , Vol. 115, No. 4 (Winter 2014), pp. 470-501. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.115.4.0470. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=13c4zGoGxX3ZizhZPZ2TxS637ljBSUtCJ.

 

'Village' concept in urban studies

Gans, Herbert. The Urban Villagers. 

Taylor. "The Village in the City" 

 

Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan

Portland City Planning Commission (1972). "Planning Guidelines - Portland Downtown Plan." https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/94718. 

"The [Citizens Advisory] committee has learned that traditionally a complex set of factors, including transportation, circulation, zoning, and taxation, have determined land use when logically these factors ought to support prior land use decisions. The Downtown Plan is an opportunity for the citizens of Portland to say: Let's first decide how we want to use our Downtown and then determine what tools are necessary to achieve our land use decisions. For example, our goals call for increasing the number of low-income and middle-income housing units Downtown. The traditional land use determinants would probably bar implementation of this goal. Thus, if the citizens of Portland approve this goal, then alternative implementing methods need to be developed." (p.2)

"[Section:] Housing & Downtown Neighborhoods. 
General Goal: to give high priority to increasing the number of residential accommodations in the Downtown area for a mix of age and income groups.."
   "Encourage the fullest use of public and private programs to ensure that future Downtown housing accommodates a mix of low, moderate, and high-income people."
   "Recognize the differing needs and problems of the various groups who will be housed, including those groups who naturally gravitate to the city core. Provide housing and services commensurate with their physical and social needs. These groups include the single retired, the elderly, itinerant workers, 'down outers,' students, the handicapped, as well as middle and upper income groups." (p.3). 

 

Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform

Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall"  ["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019. 

 

Self-build & eco-housing

developing economies - "self build" tradition, "housing as a verb" (J.F.C. Turner), cycle of applying back to more-developed countries.

Walter Segal - Segal Self-Build Housing System - Lewisham, London. 

 

Squatting, direct action, land struggles

Dignity Village as direct action & land occupation. 

Lents Womens Village - precursor to Kenton Womens Village - direct action leads to new village. 

Corr, Anders. No Trespassing!: Squatting, Rent Strikes, and Land Struggles Worldwide.1999.

Vasudevan, Alex. (2017). The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting. 2017.

 

"Non-Plan" tradition

 

Community Development Housing 

 

CDCs CDHO - tradition since 1960s, pedagogical & social-cognitive (Ruskin, etc!) perspectives. 

 

Intermediate & appropriate technologies - E.F. Schumacher

work of Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, whose theoretical framework of “intermediate technologies,” now known as “appropriate technologies,” gives the most concise and explicit approach to this type of project (Schumacher 1973).

Ernst Friedrich Schumacher advocates for developing a design with low capital costs, which uses local or found materials, keeping with grassroots decision making, working collectively, rather than relying upon individual eff orts, the allowance for user control, supporting community empowerment and economic self-suffi ciency (Schumacher 1973, 167-168).

 

Terrain vague - liminal space

"The concept of terrain vague was first theorized by Ignasi de Sola-Morales in the mid 1990s as a contemporary space of project and design that includes the marginal wastelands and vacant lots that are located outside the city’s productive spaces – which Morales describes as oversights in the landscape that are mentally exterior in the physical interior of the city. Around the same time, the artist and architect collective Stalker defined Terrains Vagues in the plural as spaces of confrontation and contamination between the organic and the inorganic, between nature and artifice that constitute the built city’s negative, the interstitial and the marginal, spaces abandoned by economic forces, or in the process of transformation.

"This book Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale – edited by the architect Manuela Mariani and the professor of English Patrick Barron - seeks to expand on Sola-Morales ideas and to present the terrain vague through a taxonomy of urban empty spaces presented by the authors in the introduction – derelict lands, brownfields, voids, loose spaces, heterotopias, dead zones, urban wilds, counter-sites. The book aims to collectively refine this notion as a central concept of urban planning and design, architecture, landscape architecture, film studies, cultural geography, literature, photography, and cultural studies, looking at possible positive alternatives to the negative images projected into them."

Barron, Patrick, and Manuela Mariani, eds (2014). Terrain Vague: Interstices at the Edge of the Pale. New York: Routledge, 2014. 

 

Early villages for the homeless

Dome Village, Los Angeles

1993-2006. 

Hayes, Ted. "History of JHUSA" [Justiceville/Homeless, USA - i.e. Dome City, Los Angeles]. http://www.tedhayes.us/domevillage/JHUSA.html

Justiceville/Homeless, USA (2001). "A Look at Dome Village." Dome Village Booklet Publication, Issue 3, July 2001. 
http://domevillage.us/a-look-at-dome-village/.

Dome Village (Justiceville II), downtown Los Angeles,1993-2006 

Founder and housing activist Ted Hayes was friends with Craig Chamberlain, architect and student/friend of Buckminster Fuller, who proposed creating dome dwellings on the site. Chamberlain also apparently had experience with fabricating fiberglass surfboards, and this informed his design of the Omni-Sphere dwellings at Dome Village, made of polyester fiberglass panels bolted together.  

Mr. Lod Cook, the then President and Chairperson of the Board of the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) which contributed $250,000 to initiate the Dome Village said of it at the opening ceremony on November 3, 1993, “The most innovative concept addressing homelessness in at least the last 50 years.”

The 20 20’+12’ apex omni-sphere domes of that made up the village on 11/4 aces lot in downtown, Los Angeles, was invented by Craig Chamberlain, a US Military, Vietnam combat  Veteran and ardent disciple-student, as well as personal friend of the late, R. Buckminister Fuller.

A wealthy property owner, Mr. David Adams, met with Ted, and so understood the immediate and long term resolution to chronic, sidewalk, encampment homelessness, became his business credibility partner; along with LA Mayor Richard Riordan who led the cities Planning Department, to permit the omni-spheres as legal, temporary, transitional structures for so said purposes.

 

Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

Dignity Village's [web] site: https://dignityvillage.org

See article: Dignity Village
 

References

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village
 

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too

Right 2 Survive organization - Ibraham Mubarak. 

 

Parr, Evanie and Rankin, Sara (2018). "It Takes a Village: Practical Guide for Authorized Encampments." Seattle University Homeless Rights Advocacy Project, May 3, 2018. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173224.

 

Rediscovering informal & interim-use urbanism: Portland food carts, tactical urbanism, villages 

From: Burman (2017), "Liminal Dwelling: Support for Street Residents, a Place of Re-integration and Transition." MArch thesis, Dalhousie University:

"The In-Between
Every city has spaces that can be considered “terrain vague”, which may be defi ned as derelict areas, wastelands or transgressive zones, that are neither slums nor open spaces but instead, are spaces that look empty and appear to have no current use. They may have once been spaces used for industry that are no longer supported by the post-industrial city. They are outside of the city’s formal circuits and structures, and need to fi nd a new use, but in the meantime, sit vacant, waiting for a new use to emerge (Doron 2010, 247). Instead of being viewed as blocked, inactive thresholds, these spaces should be seen as spaces in which to experiment, that is, spaces that may create opportunity for new forms of social interaction and relationships (Mariani and Barron 2014, 57).
    "Space is not a container to be filled with, or to be emptied of, a specific content, space is rather a network of relations activated, rearranged, and made meaningful by human actions (Mariani and Barron 2014, 49)."

 

Food-carts as key paradigm-changer and new unit of urban form, discussed by Palleroni & Cruz on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]). 

Blanchard, Dave. [2012]. "Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. OPB Think Out Loud, October 3rd 2012. https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/.
MP3: https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3.

 

Community, public-interest design: the POD Initiative, etc. 

Hazelnut Grove

Village Coalition 

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 

 

Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design

See article: Center for Public Interest Design.

Connecting global practices of informal, community-based, participatory development
 

Teddy Cruz interview

 from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]:

"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.

"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations. 

"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words, the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 

 

Blanchard, Dave. [2012]. "Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. OPB Think Out Loud, October 3rd 2012. https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/.
MP3: https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3.

Feldman, Roberta M, and Sergio Palleroni, David Perkes, Bryan Bell. "Wisdom From the Field: Public Interest Architecture in Practice." 2013. www.publicinterestdesign.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Wisdom-from-the-Field.pdf.

Ferry, Todd, and Sergio Palleroni. "Research + action: the first two years of the Center for Public Interest Design." in Wortham-Galvin, B.D., editor, Sustainable Solutions: Let Knowledge Serve the City, 2016. 
https://www.amazon.com/Sustainable-Solutions-Knowledge-Serve-City/dp/178353396X.

 

Village Coalition & POD Initiative

Cross-sector coalition and design, to convene deep community response

See article: Village Coalition

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • Tim's photo album on POD Initiative: [1]. 
  • Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio, LA

This project closely coincided with POD Initiative and was quite similar in many ways. Comparisons may be instructive, for example how MADWORKSHOP unlike POD Initiative did not explicitly have a pre-specified building code they were building to, or site either actual or hypothetical for program. While POD Initiative did not actually (at least yet) build site or structures for the contemplated users/program (Hazelnut Grove village), the built structures did get used at other sites - Kenton Women's Village, Clackamas County Veteran's Village, and possible others to come. Some already built or to-be-built POD units may be used at the new site in St Johns area to which Hazelnut Grove village plans to relocate -- name to be decided as of late Nov 2019. 

Borges, Sofia, and R. Scott Mitchell (2018). Give Me Shelter: Architecture Takes on the Homeless Crisis. ORO Editions, February 1, 2018)
"Give Me Shelter documents the work of the MADWORKSHOP Homeless Studio at the USC School of Architecture and their solutions for tackling the Los Angeles homeless crisis through design, compassion, and humanity. The book features exclusive content from leaders in the field including Michael Maltzan, Ted Hayes, Betty Chinn, Gregory Kloehn, Skid Row Housing Trust, and many more. Paired with a forward by Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles, Give Me Shelter provides an in-depth look at how design can bridge the gap in services to get people off the streets and into housing sooner."


 

Kenton Women's and later villages

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village

Communitecture page on Kenton Women's Village 
http://www.communitecture.net/kenton-womens-village.html


 

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village


Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village

Tim's photo album on Agape Village: [1].


Shelter designs after the POD Iniative:  how users, villages, and builders have modified or chosen/developed different designs, and why. 

Hazelnut Grove 2.0


Permanent villages & housing


Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans
 

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans

See also:  Quixote Village, in Olympia, Washington. 

 

Cass Community Social Services - Tiny Homes Detroit

Cass Community Social Services. "Tiny Homes Detroit."  https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/.  Accessed 19 November 2019. 

 

Veterans' Villages - Canada, Wisconsin

 

Backyard cottages for low-income & homeless

Block Project, Seattle

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - from Transition Projects and Meyer Trust in Portland. 

Multnomah County pilot.

Los Angeles pilot. 

Dinh, Tran and Brewster, David and Fullerton, Anna and Huckaby, Greg and Parks, Mamie and Rankin, Sara and Ruan, Nantiya and Zwiebel, Elie (2018). "Yes, In My Backyard: Building ADUs to Address Homelessness. University of Denver Sturm College of Law Homeless Advocacy Policy Project, May 3, 2018. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173258 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3173258. 

 

Portland grant- and developer-funded housing experiments

Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiencies program.

New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects, Inc

See article:  LISAH

Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html.

LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building. 

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village
 

Meyer Trust - Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019

 

Rob Justus - Home First low-cost affordable housing

 

Guerrilla Development - Jolene's First Cousin project

See article: Jolene's First Cousin

Harbarger, Molly, and Elliot Njus (2019). "Portland banking on low-rent SRO hotels to ease housing problems." The Oregonian, April 27, 2019. https://www.oregonlive.com/business/2019/04/officials-look-to-sro-hotels-as-model-for-low-income-housing.html.

2016 - Portland Housing Bureau bought the Joyce Hotel SRO downtown. 1st publicly owned SRO in Portland?

2018 - PHB bought Westwind Apartments, in Chinatown. Will be torn down and replaced with new building. 

PHB and state are contributing $4.5M to new Findley Commons, run by Do Good Multnomah.

Also contributed to a new $15M Central City Concern development with 40 SRO units. 

LISAH - Low-Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects project with 36 SRO units, also 35 studio apartments in a separate building. 

Monahan, Rachel (2018). "With Plans to Build Housing for the Homeless, a Portland Developer is Privatizing Socialism." ["Reason no. 16 to love Portland right now"]. Willamette Week, 14 February 2018.  https://www.wweek.com/culture/2018/02/14/our-developers-are-privatizing-socialism/

Urban Land Institute. "Deal Profile: Jolene's First Cousin." ULI. https://casestudies.uli.org/deal-profile-jolenes-first-cousin/.  Undated, accessed 18 November 2019. 

 

Co-op/condo villages - Orange Splot, etc

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

Mason Street Townhomes

 

'bottom-up' and the Community Development tradition 

DeFilippis, James, and Susan Saegert (2012). The Community Development Reader (2nd edition, Routledge 2012). 

Frisch, Michael, and Lisa J. Servon (2006). "CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development: A Review of the Field and the Environment." Community Development: Journal of the Community Development Society, Vol. 37, No. 4, Winter 2006. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/servon.pdf. 

Immerwahr, Daniel (2018).  Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development. Harvard University Press, 2015. 

O’Regan, K. M., Quigley, J. M. (2000). Federal Policy and the Rise of Nonprofit Housing Providers.
Journal of Housing Research, 11(2): 297-317. https://urbanpolicy.berkeley.edu/pdf/OQ_JHR00PB.pdf.

Ryder, Marianne. "USP528 - Concepts of Community Development" [course syllabus, Portland State University, Winter 2019].  https://www.pdx.edu/usp/sites/www.pdx.edu.usp/files/USP%20Syllabi/USP528%20Syllabus%20Winter%202019rev2.pdf. 

Simon, William H. (2002).  The Community Economic Development Movement: Law, Business, and the New Social Policy. Duke University Press, 2002.  $5.11

Stoecker, R. (1997). "The CDC Model of Urban Redevelopment: A Critique and an Alternative." Journal of Urban Affairs, 19(1): 1-22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AWgx3fj3cB2gPd33qq2EUKLfDU41-yQt. 
Abstract: 
"This paper questions the viability of an urban redevelopment model that relies on small communiry development corporations (CDCs) and proposes an alternative. Because most CDCs are severely undercapitalized, they can not keep up with accelerating decay. Their existence, and the emphasis placed on their supposed successes, allow elites to blame poor neighborhood CDCs rather than external conditions for redevelopment failure. The model also emphasizes that CDCs be community-based, but because their resource base is controlled from outside the neighborhood there is really very little community control over CDCs. CDCs may even delegitimize more empowerment-focused community organizing attempts by making them appear radical. Consequently, the CDC development process my actually disorganize poor communities by creating internal competition or disrupting social networks. An alternative model of neighborhood redevelopment is proposed which emphasizes community organizing, community-controlled planning, and high-capacity multi-local CDCs held accountable through a strong community organizing process."

Vidal, A. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. 
 

 

Future paths

 

Village cluster housing

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program? 

City of Milwaukie study

[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.]. 

a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.

Created [mostly] by community capital, vs financial capital.
 

14 September 2019 post by Tim McCormick to American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook: 

To me it seems like a big, big potential opportunity for siting tiny houses, especially in Oregon, California, and Seattle, is in movable (and perhaps foundation-anchorable / deanchorable) tiny houses being accepted and facilitated in local accessory dwellings (ADU) ordinances, i.e. as backyard cottages. Also, in cluster-housing developments enabled on former single-family lots by new Oregon law (#HB2001), Portland law (pending RIP Residential Infill Program), and just-passed California ADU law.

The new Oregon Reach Code offers some help there by:

a) recognizing the use of standards applying to both vehicle and on-foundation cases, and making it easier to do both, e.g. with similar RV-type utility hookups; and

b) bringing movable tiny-house *into state building code*, which I think will make quite a difference in local governments approving this use for ADUs and other contexts.

What might take this even further?

Based partly on the Reach Code, I and friends in Portland have been developing for last year a proposal "New Starter Homes" for the city to pilot a wide-scale, affordable ADU program. It would help (and perhaps manage & pay for) low-income homeowners to put simple post foundations and utility hookups on their parcel, then help match them with low-income residents who'd bring, build or be offered use of a tiny house to put on the site. Tiny-house resident would pay pad rent & towards utilities, perhaps subsidized by city or funder.

Portland has 110,000 single-family lots which could take an ADU, according to Commissioner Eudaly's analysis. Currently there are ADUs on less than 2% of lots. If we could interest or incent just a few more % of homeowners to accept that simple and buryable post foundation being put in, and agree to 1-2 year lease hosting a tiny house, we could have 1000s of sitings in Portland.

Proposal: New Starter Homes:
Google Doc: http://bit.ly/levitatetown.
PDF: http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/New-Starter-Homes_2019-09-10.pdf.

Comments & questions invited!

References:

1) Oregon #HB2001, requires cottage clusters be allowed at least somewhere in all single-family residential zones above 25,000 population. See https://www.sightline.org/2019/06/30/oregon-just-voted-to-legalize-duplexes-on-almost-every-city-lot/.

2) Portland's proposed Residential Infill Program would enable fourplex developments on a large portion of residential lots citywide. RIP: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/76592.

3) Also, in an August 26, 2019 memo, the Bureau of Planning and Sustainability (BPS) noted that as part of a new "Anti-displacement Action Plan" added to RIP, it is discussing an idea to allow sixplexes if at least 3 units are affordable at 60% Median Family Income. https://efiles.portlandoregon.gov/Record/13182894/File/Document. It's apparently inspired by a similar new law in Austin, "Affordability Unlocked."

4) Oregon's Building Codes Division last year passed a Tiny House Code which allows < 400 square foot homes, both mobile and on foundation, to be permitted in building code. https://www.oregon.gov/bcd/codes-stand/Documents/reach-18reachcode.pdf. It was recognized by Portland Bureau of Development Services, which assigned an official to develop implementation materials and help developers in Portland: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bds/article/700062

5). City of Milwaukie released in June an impressive report "Milwaukie Cottage Cluster Analysis Final Report (done with Orange Splot of Portland and Opticos), that analyzed various hypothetical cluster developments. It showed that even if developed on a conventional for-profit model, they could bring costs of some units way down to 30-60% of Area Mean Income, far lower than existing or new single-family housing in the area. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1u5LhZGO8PLo7H40oduKWOhsbNvqge1Bm/view?usp=sharing

6. For a discussion of cottage clusters generally and how Portland might use them, see: Michael Andersen, "Cottage clusters: Portland’s chance to build community in a new way." Portland For Everyone, Nov. 2, 2017. https://medium.com/@pdx4all/cottage-clusters-portlands-chance-to-build-community-in-a-new-way-7c504c5b260b.



in Portland Residential Infill Project (RIP)

RIP is reducing the review procedure required for "planned developments" (PDs) which would include cluster housing, in most residential zones (R7, R5, R2.5). 

Portland, City of. Bureau of Planning & Sustainability. "Residential Infill Project: Recommended Draft, August 2019." Volume 1: Staff Report and Map Amendments
https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/746997.

"7. Continue to allow different building forms and site arrangements through a planned development review. Affects R7, R5 and R2.5 zoned properties.

"Land use review procedures, in order from least to greatest level of process, include Type I and Ix, Type II and IIx, Type III and Type IV. Most PDs currently go through a Type III procedure, which is decided by a Hearings Officer and, if appealed, by City Council. By comparison, a Type IIx land use review, which applies to smaller land divisions, is less expensive, requires less time to process and is a staff decision that can be appealed to the Hearings Officer. Both procedure types utilize the same approval criteria and provide opportunities for appeals at both the City and State level. The recommended threshold for PDs is changed so that proposals for up to 20 units are processed as a Type IIx case, the same maximum number of units that can be reviewed through a Type IIx standard R2.5 subdivision (10 lots with two units each)."
Planned development. See Chapter 33.270

 



2 November 2019 post by Tim McCormick to American Tiny House Association, Oregon Chapter group on Facebook: 

reposting to this group a long reply to a suggestion that tiny houses aren't appropriate in cities, because too low density, from PDX YIMBY group.

Original post was sharing an article about Sacramento's Mayor, also chairperson of California Statewide Commission on Homelessness, calling for large statewide expansion of tiny-home approaches. (http://www.capradio.org/articles/2019/10/29/sacramento-mayor-calls-for-rapid-expansion-of-tiny-homes-across-california/). Doug Klotz in PDX YIMBY group commented: "While tiny homes might fill in on suburban lots, for urban areas, especially near transit, they do not provide the necessary density. Only multistory does that." My extended reply below:

"Yes, I hope nobody considers tiny houses the answer to all housing needs/contexts or all homelessness issues. On the other hand, I also hope nobody considers our present set of approaches to be without major gaps and flaws, and large opportunities for change. Particularly, in my opinion, if you look at it from the bottom up -- i.e., what the most needy need, and what we could do with comparatively simple and decentralized approaches.

On density: yes, if you have a larger lot, zoned for multistory, and you have access to a lot of capital and good future rent revenues, then you can get more units with a large apartment building. However, most times and places in US cities are not like that, not even in most of inner Portland or with statewide HB2001 upzoning or citywide R.I.P. infill program. Most area of most US cities is 4-8000 square-foot lots with low-density residential, with prohibition of or strong opposition to large/high buildings. Available, financeable sites for large apartment buildings are scarce and costly, and will typically be built as market-rate, usually rental housing for the high end of market -- possibly with inclusionary housing units -- or sometimes as dedicated-affordable buildings, also costly per unit to build.

As a back-of-envelope exercise, we could take a typical Portland residential lot, of 50 x 100 feet, and consider development options. Assuming no on-site parking, and a 10' access way up the middle, it's plausible to create eight 20'x25' sub-lots, each of which could site most of the house models used at Emerald Village (see attached image). One unit might be a common building with shared kitchen, meeting/social space, etc.

I'm looking for examples of contemporary apartment buildings built in such a case, e.g. in Portland, and I'd say it's at least uncommon to put more than eight units on a site like this, though it can be done with small apartments, and has been done in other eras.

Aside from number of homes, an approach like dense, cluster, small housing has different characteristics and possibilities. First, it can require far less capital. Emerald Village, Eugene, for comparison (not that dense, but to compare model) is 22 mostly custom homes, total development cost including land $55k/home, which was financed by SquareOne Villages non-profit with small-scale grants and funds. (compared to $300-800k per affordable housing unit, typical range from Oregon to San Francisco).

This approach is also much more conducive to piecemeal and incremental development, both across a site and for an individual home which could be separately financed/finished/expanded over time -- this facilitates individual financing and building and owning. Which, incidentally, is characteristic of dwelling in many times and places, that gave people good opportunities to become owners and meet their needs -- including earlier eras in the US -- which is why I call a project proposal I'm working on for low-cost cottages, New Starter Homes.

Much lower capital requirements means many more parties can potentially develop, with different models such as limited-equity community land trust (e.g. SquareOne Villages), groups of people developing for their joint need (like Baugruppe model common in Germany, or any org/agency looking to create low-cost ownership housing.

Finally, I think small detached units have unusual potentials that we don't often think about. They can be pre-fabbed, so potentially built off-site more efficiently in all seasons, with much less construction disruption to area. They can be redeployable, so financed separately and more easily, and could move between interim-use, cluster-housing, or accessory-dwelling unit contexts. They can be built with very ecological materials, and have very low embedded and operating energy requirements. (home size is the #1 factor in building lifecycle energy use, along with driving less far to get to it). Also they can be more likely than large buildings to remain inhabitable after natural disasters like earthquakes, and can be relatively easily operated off grid; both of which sooner or later will be crucial when the Cascadia Fault earthquake hits Oregon.

When the Big One hits, I for one want to be living small, and cooperatively with neighbors."

 

Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages? 

anticipating a long-term increase in disaster and climate-change related disruption in US and globally. 

Help provide models and learning for the US and globally. 

Bridging emergency/immediate response with long-term adaptation and resettlement. (a long-running thorny problem, at least since the previous age of mass dislocation, during/after WWII). 

Note that the Pacific Northwest already receives a large in-migration from US (especially to Portland, Seattle, & Oregon coast), and is predicted to increasingly do so from climate-change effects upon other parts of the US that likely will make SW & SE of US increasingly uninhabitable or agriculturally viable. 

Oregon could experience large refugee / resettler influxes from California due to earthquake or wildfire impacts.

Oregon could also at any time be hit by "the Big One" offshore Cascadia Fault earthquake which will destroy coastal areas and devastate much of the infrastructure of western Oregon. Up to 100,000s of Oregon could be displaced, have uninhabitable homes, be without utility water, sewage, gas, electricity for months to years. 

 

Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use

see: New Starter Homes / PAD Initiative project document.  [McCormick 2019]

 

Integrating bottom-up/autonomous with government support

Colin Ward. Talking Houses (1975). 
  "Dweller control" in public housing.  

from Karakusevic & Batchelor [2017]: Social Housing: Definitions and Design Exemplars:

"In the 21st century, the definition of [social housing] exists in multiple forms. Across Europe there are many distinct methods for delivering housing and in many of the countries featured in this book the term 'social' is rarely used at all. In the UK it is commonly (mis)understood as simply 'council housing', in France it is 'housing at moderate rent' (habitation a loyer modere), in Denmark it is 'common housing', in Germany 'housing promotion', while in Austria it is 'people's housing'. Uniting all of these, however, is the idea that there are and can be alternatives to a purely market-orientated system of provision and it is here, amidst the variety of alternative forms both new and old, that this book places itself. Within our definition of 'social housing' we present here public projects led by local authorities, philanthropic schemes led by charities and co-operative or collective schemes led by residents and the people who will live in them.
    Across Europe some form of strategic public oversight of housing supply has been maintained through a variety of means that includes direct building, subsidies, planning and rent control."
"This book's alternative narrative embraces those who want to create the homes they need by their own volition as groups and collectives. This is not contradictory to a social housing ethos, but rather a rediscovery of a grassroots form of social organization, which when blended with the support and advocacy of a local authority or a housing association can be part of a positive mix in provision." 


CDCs (Community Development Corporations) and CHDOs (Community Housing Development organizations):
emergence in 1960s. 

Housing vouchers and income support. 

Spohn, Richard B. (1972). "The Owner-Builder: Legislative Analysis and Recommendation." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972]. 

Harms, Hans H. "User and Community Involvement in Housing and Its Effect on Professionalism." In [Turner & Fichtel, eds, Freedom to Build, 1972].  
"Problems of insufficiency and inadequacy are immanent in the present housing supply structure, which is oriented toward the supply side and the construction of units according to procedures set by industry and government, and which subsidized industry, professional 'facilitating beneficiaries,' and the rich in order to provide housing for the poor...Direct subsidies to users in combination with a network of decentralized services could increase the autonomy of low-income families without setting up complicated mechanisms to regulate the lives of the poor or the process by which housing for the poor is created." 
Discusses 1968 Tent City in Boston. 

"The failures of the market- and state-based housing provision and the relative success of community-based home and neighborhood building (especially the so-called third world and supposedly developing countries) highlight the complementarities of these three essentially different 'sectors.'" 
- John F. C. Turner, Foreward to Nabeel Hamdi, Housing Without Houses, 1995. 

 

Right to Build and the "Citizen Sector" (Alastair Parvin et al): digital, distributed, mass self-build housing. 

Parvin, Alastair, and David Saxby, Cristina Cerulli, Tatjana Schneider (2011). "A Right to Build: The next mass-housebuilding industry." Architecture 00 and University of Sheffield School of Architecture, 2011. https://issuu.com/architecture00/docs/arighttobuild

Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Scaling the Citizen Sector." Medium, Oct 5, 2016. 
https://medium.com/@AlastairParvin/scaling-the-citizen-sector-20a20dbb7a4c.

Parvin, Alastair, and Andy Reeve. "Affordable Land." 2018. https://www.opensystemslab.io/affordableland. 

 

Constructing a legal right to housing

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).
Available at: https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766.

"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order. 

Note particularly:  
III. Occupying the American Right to Housing
   A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land 
   B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction
   C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless

 

Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

we shouldn't lower housing standards, we should provide enough funding

 

tiny houses / villages don't provide the needed density for urban areas

 

temporary or substandard housing/shelter isn't and distracts from the real solution, housing

'temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.  [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 

Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives." Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618.  [full text].

 

'Self build' and lower standards facilitate exploitation, inequality, defunding

e.g. Giancarlo De Carlo's critique of CIAM and "Existunzminimum" / Basic housing concepts, in "Architecture's Public's," as serving interests of inequality and exploitation.

We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 

If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

 

Different housing for the poor and unhoused makes it stigmatized & unintegrated

Stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 

US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

 

Lower cost/standard housing may be more costly in long run

 


Lower building costs help developers, but don't lower prices

housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

 

 

Essay/article ideas (possible book chapters)

sections separately published/publishable as essay or article, which could become or be adapted into a book chapter):


A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

possibly for an Appendix.
See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability.
 

Housing solutionism, and the best versus the good. 

It's an appealing, intuitive, idea, and often said in the homelessness world: the solution to homelessness is housing. (eg here by National Alliance to End Homelessness https://endhomelessness.org/homelessness-in-america/what-causes-homelessness/housing/). Who could disagree? What devil would want that they shouldn't have housing?

However, perhaps it is a bit like saying the solution to cancer is to not have cancer. It's true enough, but how? Perhaps, in the case of cancer, first by studying how and doing what helps prevent it, e.g. health practices and environmental protections; then, how soonest to detect it, since sooner remedies are much more effective; then what techniques are best to treat it; then, how to fairly choose what to do, given competing prevention/treatment options to approve or fund. The goal is clear but there are many paths.

Greg-Barchuk--A-child-could-figure-out-how-to-end-homelessness.jpg

 

The self-evidentness of "Housing ends homelessness" belies the complex history of how it arose, and what work it does in the field. It is associated with the late-1990s categorizing the "chronicly homeless" (Culhane & Kahn, 1998, etc), who permanently need and can be effectively treated (Tsemberis 1999 etc) with conventional housing plus services, provided without treatment preconditions ("Housing First"). Increasingly this has been generalized into the officially endorsed concept for all homelessness response, and used to oppose or limit support for 'shelters,' or anything classified as transitional housing, and sometimes also charitable services such as mobile showers (e.g. Parsell & Watts, 2017).

Also, "housing ends homelessness" or Housing First ideas are typically used to argue, explicitly or implicitly, for providing housing that is the same as current, conventional market housing (see e.g. PSU HRAC's 2019 homelessness report); or a variant, "supportive housing," usually defined as that plus on-site medical and social services/facilities. Often, there is an argument that this is not only the best thing to, but saves public money by reducing use of other services -- which, while it helps to seal a slam-dunk case, turns out to be generally doubtful, and anyway unfortunate in arguing that helping the needy must pay for itself.

Or often, now, permanent supportive housing is seen as the /only/ solution. For example, a recent OPB story "Multnomah County Seeing Spike In People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness" quoted Multnomah County / City of Portland Joint Office of Homeless Services: "Jolin said the office already knows what the solution is. 'The fact that we don’t have supporting housing is why we’re seeing a persistent increase in the chronically homeless over time,' he said." The Joint Office "defines supportive housing as housing that is affordable to those with 'very limited to almost no income' and is equipped with onsite mental health treatment and other support services." [though the US Interagency Council on Homelessness doesn't consider on-site required: https://www.usich.gov/solutions/housing/supportive-housing/; and Sam Tsemberis, chief promulgator of the approach, defined it initially as, and prefers, housing that is *not* integrated with on-site services].

So for example, we see, as city response to homelessness, policy like the 2016 Housing Bond, dedicating $258M to create 1,300 units of permanently affordable housing, 600 for households below 30% of AMI, 300 of them Permanent Supportive Housing. Portland Housing Bureau just announced they have hit goal, (via the crucial factor of state law changing to allow funding of private projects), funding 1,424 units, with $213M of the money -- 64% new units, 36% acquisition/rehab. That averages $150k of city funding per unit, probably higher for the new units, and total subsidy per unit much higher due to partner developers bringing other subsidy funds such as LIHTC tax credits, so I'll loosely guess $300k/unit. These projects also have significant rent income from most home recipients, via income or benefits.

One issue with these projects is what housing economists call the "crowding out" effect of subsidized housing. They are generally in good locations which, given the level of housing demand, would likely otherwise have been developed as market-rate housing. While subsidized projects clearly help the city's affordability more, it should be compared to what positive affordability effect the market-rate housing might have had; and also, what alternately could be done with the subsidies.

The basic problem here is that we have a quite costly response, of creating/acquiring housing units at $100k's each, which is helping only a small part of the needy population; and we have both a large needy population existing, but steady inflow of more people into homelessness. Of course, we could say (and advocates often do say) that we just need to greatly scale up the response. But do we even know how much impact the current approach has, that we would know how much it would need scaling? I think we hardly know or agree on that at all.

Official announcements and advocacy often state or imply that 100 units of permanent supportive housing would reduce chronic homelessness by 100 households; but aggregate-effects research, such as reviewed by O'Flaherty in his recent lit review, find dramatically different results, of < 10 household reduction for every 100 new PSH units. (O'Flaherty, Brendan. "Homelessness Research: A Guide for Economists (and Friends)." Journal of Housing Economics (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2019.01.003. PDF: https://drive.google.com/open...).

In any case, when confronted with a large social project such as ending homelessness, shouldn't we ask how best, cost-effectively, and expeditiously it can be done, and not just accept a "trust us!" from the establishment in charge? Is it undignifying the homeless, to ask what housing is, how it can be done anew? I think it's more undignifying to suggest that the answers are all known, to a monumentally complex and severe problem stretching on for decades and in many places including West Coast cities, getting worse. With deep respect for the many committed, caring, expert people working in this field -- and recognizing that experienced advocates may feel embattled and inclined to circle wagons and use what rhetoric seems to work -- I think, as Giancarlo De Carlo said: architecture is too important to be left to the architects. ("Architecture's Public", 1970).

In my opinion, towards housing for all, governments should focus on first on reducing overall housing scarcity and cost factors, then on the potential for helping the least-served with a housing benefit (i.e. voucher), and then on enabling in the most cost-effective way the largest possible amount of basic housing options, in the way that least crowds out other housing production; and by combining all means, move towards an effective "right to housing." Some obvious candidates for where governments might look for lowest-subsidy-cost, adequate new dwellings are: incenting and facilitating house-sharing, of underutilized e.g. empty-nest homes; and likewise, low-cost accessory dwelling and cottage cluster housing aimed at low-income households.

The seemingly obvious "housing ends homelessness" answer, in my opinion, unfortunately tends to evade necessary analyses, and considering issues broadly and radically. It tends to promote a costly new-housing 'cure' over possibly much more cost-effective preventions or treatments, it tends to occlude the question of what counts or works as 'housing,' and how it might be done differently. Exactly contrary to hopes, it may help tend to frame the problem such that it will never be solved, at least in our time.

---

thread with Watts et al:  https://twitter.com/tmccormick/status/1189138645866799106

cf: Parsell, Cameron, and Beth Watts. "Charity and Justice: A Reflection on New Forms of Homelessness Provision in Australia." European Journal of Homelessness. Volume 11, No. 2, December 2017.  https://www.feantsaresearch.org/download/think-piece-12032277176126500690.pdf.

Abstract: Charity directed at people who are homeless is invariably portrayed as positive. The good intentions of the provider of charity are not only lauded, but equated with positive outcomes for the receiver. The often severe material deprivation experienced by those who are homeless appears to justify the celebration of an extremely low bar of resource provision. Extending what has been the historic provision of food, drinks, blankets, and other day-to-day means of survival, contemporary charity in Australia also includes the provision of mobile shower, mobile clothes washing, and mobile hair dressing facilities. The emergence of similar ‘novel’ interventions to ‘help the homeless’ are seen in a wide range of other countries. In this paper we examine the consequences of providing charity to people who are homeless; consequences for the giver, receiver, and society more broadly. Drawing on the ideas of Peter Singer and the ‘effective altruist’ movement as a possible corrective to this prevailing view of charity, we suggest that such charitable interventions may not only do little good, but may actually do harm. We further argue that justice is achieved when inequities are disrupted so that people who are homeless can access the material condition required to exercise autonomy over how they live, including the resources required to wash, clothe and feed themselves how and when they choose. 

 

Parsell, Cameron. "Homelessness, Identity, and our Poverty of Ambition." Keynote address at 14th European Research Conference on Homelessness. 20 September 2019, Helsingborg, Sweden. 
Presentation slides: https://www.feantsaresearch.org/public/user/Observatory/2019/2019_conference/ppts/Plenary_-_Cameron_Parsell_-_Keynote_Europe_September_2019.pdf
Video:  https://www.facebook.com/FEANTSA/videos/515174705720867/ (2:40 - 33:20). 
    "We overserve people who are experiencing homelessness, and this overservicing represents one of the key barriers to actually ending it." (near start).
     "Homelessness exists in Australia and increases because actually we pity them, we pity them 
as someone deficient, as the downtrodden, as a group of people that we want to exercise our compassion towards. Whereas a few years ago we were talking about justice, we were talking about evidence, we were talkingabout ending homelessness, this is what we're doing in Australia now:  we're actually giving brand new vans and washing machines, and driving around washing their clothes."

 

Culhane, Dennis P. & Stephen Metraux. "Rearranging the Deck Chairs or Reallocating the Lifeboats? Homelessness Assistance and Its Alternatives." Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol 74, Issue 1, 2008, pp111-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360701821618.  [full text].

 

Housing from the bottom up: homelessness and global self-build traditions 

 

vernacular self/community-built architecture - the global & historical norm. 

squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house

Middle East - Hassan Fathy

anarchist tradition: Kropotkin, Ebenezer Howard, Colin Ward, Giancarlo De Carlo, J.F.C. Turner

"Non Plan" movement in UK

Latin America - J.F.C. Turner "Freedom to Build"

vernacular housing: J.B. Jackson, et al. 

UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London

"Right to the City" activism: Lefebvre, David Harvey, etc. 

US community/occupation housing 1960s-

1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc.

mobile/temporary vs permanent housing;  emergency response vs permanent rebuilding

J.B. Jackson; Ian Davis "Shelter After Disaster" 1978.

the Principle of Requisite Variety
 

Bhatt, Vikram, et al. "How the Other Half Builds - Vol 3: The Self-Selection Process." Centre for Minimum Cost Housing, McGill University, Research Paper No. 11, March 1990. https://www.mcgill.ca/mchg/files/mchg/how_the_other_half_builds_ssp.pdf

Hamdi, Nabeel. 1995. Housing without Houses: Participation, Flexibility, Enablement.  Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing (formerly Intermediate Technology Publications), The Schumacher Centre, 1995. https://www.scribd.com/document/364607734/hamdi-nabeel-housing-without-houses-participation-flexibility-enablement.

Hamdi, Nabeel (2004). Small Change: About the art of practice and the limits of planning in cities. London: Earthscan, 2004. https://www.scribd.com/document/363933988/320473408-Hamdi-Small-Change-pdf.

 

"Housing For All, the Minimum Dwelling, and the problem of standards."

the 'Existenzminimum' tradition: 

Teige, The Minimum Dwelling (1932). 
CIAM II Congress, 1929. 

Brysch, Sara. "Reinterpreting Existenzminimum in Contemporary Affordable Housing Solutions." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019).  https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2121

Korbi, Marson, and Andrea Migotto. "Between Rationalization and Political Project: The Existenzminimum from Klein and Teige to Today." Urban Planning. Vol 4, No 3 (2019). https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2157.

Mumford, Eric. "CIAM and Its Outcomes." https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2383. 

Porotto, Alessandro, and Chiara Monterumisi. "New Perspectives on the II CIAM onwards: How Does Housing Build Cities?" https://www.cogitatiopress.com/urbanplanning/article/view/2430.

"Just enough" - minimalism, ecology, & justice in housing

book Just Enough by Azby Brown - Edo Japan as a social/technological apex in sustainable communities. 

Minimum Cost Housing Group (McGill University School of Architecture). "Publications." https://mchg.ca/publications/.
 

Homelessness and disaster: comparing and combining responses

"Housing in the twentieth century has been one continuing emergency." 
- Charles Abrams, "The Future of Housing." 1946. 

In the long run, we're all homeless

Natural vs unnatural disasters: why is homelessness different? 

comparing & combining responses to homelessness, catastrophe. 

 


from comment in Village Collaborative group by Tim about post on SOS "Stewardship Villages", San Francisco: 

"This presentation from Saint Francis Homeless Challenge highlights the large current and potential overlaps between homelessness response, 'emergency' or 'disaster' response, and climate-change adaptation -- e.g. off-grid and decarbonized energy sources. It's fruitful to compare ways these two situation types thought of and responded to, or might be, and I'm exploring this in an essay draft, "Homelessness and disaster: comparing and combining responses," for #VillageBuildings web/book project. What do you think, why with homelessness do we not help everyone equally and best we can, as with 'natural' disasters? 

This is a perennial question posed with homelessness. Perhaps the different response is because 'disaster' is seen as a well-defined and specific, rather than many-causal and ongoing, affliction; affecting people equally and regardless of their actions? 
https://www.facebook.com/groups/TheVillageCollaborative/permalink/1168850549956586/

What do you think, why with homelessness do we not help everyone equally and as best we can

Saint Francis' choice of label for their model, "S.O.S." (Safe Organized Spaces) signals 'emergency' -- also, saving souls -- and in the presentation below they focus on solar power supply "which could provide off-grid energy for our proposed 180 Jones, Tenderloin prototype village and for future sites, as well as for disaster relief situations and as a mobile charging station for the unhoused."

But disaster effects actually often are many-causal, ongoing, and avoidable: for example, all kinds of societal decisions create disaster vulnerability, especially for the marginalized, such as steering them into relatively unsafe housing, in flood plains or landslide zones;  not building or maintaining levees, not investing in early-warning systems, sirens, emergency response systems, emergency transport capability, first aid supplies, and shelters.  

Conversely, for the more privileged, society has long permitted and even subsidized housing in disaster-prone areas such as near shore on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, canyon and hill areas in California urban edges.  They are subsidized by explicit or implicit insurance (e.g. Federal flood insurance, and expectation that costly emergency response and rebuilding will recurringly be undertaken by government).  These are cases where the 'disasters' are somewhat predictable, in that wildfires and storms/hurricanes are known to reoccur, yet people keep building and rebuilding in places where they probably wouldn't if they were fully bearing the disaster risk. 
------

Aquilino, Marie, ed. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).
ISBN 9781935202479[1].
   Part 1. Architecture after disaster : 
Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --
Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --
News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --
From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --
   Part 2. What should governments do? : 
When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --
Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --
What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --
   Part 3. Urban risk and recovery : 
Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --
Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --
Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --
Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --
Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --
   Part 4. Environmental resilience : 
Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --
The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --
Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --
On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --
   Part 5. Teaching as strategic action : 
Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --
Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --
Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --
   Part 6. Is prevention possible? : 
More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --
Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --
Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --
Afterword : 
Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.
 

Architecture for Humanity, Cameron Sinclair, & Kate Stohr. Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crisis. 2006.

Cuny, Frederick C. (1983). Disasters and Development. 1983. Full text: https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/159887.

Davis, Ian (1978). Shelter After Disasterhttps://drive.google.com/open?id=18pZGVf5aRCkT1LnmmZeMQ8hZ6QwN6nog.

 

Appendix -- A Pattern Language For Housing Affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

 

Appendix B: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
     
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
     
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
     
  • The Portland Experiment 
     
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 
 

 

Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
  STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles. This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.  b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;  c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.  d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing. 

   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 
 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 


Relation to other books / web resources

Tent City Urbanism book (2014): consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps possible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint? 
-> avoid redundant material.
-> consider what are natural follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary. 
    -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book. 
    -> new conceptual extensions.  

SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership. 

CPID publications / publicity

Meyer Memorial Trust materials. 

Village Coalition site.

Housing.wiki. 

STRATEGY:  establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from Village Buildings to the other partners, e.g. to HousingWiki and a possible Village Collaborative wiki. 

STRATEGY:  set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;  b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia. 

--> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials. 

 

"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.
 

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "


We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.

 

Appendix C: book proposal draft 

In case we consider proposing this project to a publisher, and useful to consider in any case, here are questions from: "Guidelines for Submitting a Proposal to Island Press" https://islandpress.app.box.com/s/pwy70may609coa912ft4pewilzu0mtxb.:
 

1. General Overview: Introduce your subject and argument. Explain why your book is needed; what does it offer readersthat is new? Describe your overall approach and structure.

 

2. Table of Contents: List allchapters, along with any front matter (introductions/prefaces, etc.) and back matter (appendices/charts/references/sources lists/index, etc.). Annotate each chapter briefly.

 

3. Audience: Define your intended audience and explain why the book will appeal to them. Include well-defined groups of readers (e.g.,members of particular professions or academic fields). List the relevant associations that are most important for the audience for your book and identify those in which you are active. If your book is primarily intended for students, please describe the courses that should adopt it.

 

4. Author Information: Give a brief rundown of your occupation. Summarize your areas of expertise and explain why you are qualified to write the book. In addition, please submit a CV or resume.

 

5. Marketing Platform: Describe your professional activities and writing experience (with a focus on books, articles, blogs). Have you been interviewed by the media on a topic related to your book or do you have other experience with media outreach? What is the size of your network (contacts who could helpwith the promotion of the book)? If you give lectures or workshops, include a summary of your activities for the past year. If you have a well-developed social media network, please explain.

 

6. Competing/Comparable Titles: List any previously published titles that are similar to your book in topic, approach, or writing style (please specify which). What about your proposed book is different, timely, and important in comparison to existing print or online information on the topic? For course-adoption books, what is the primary benefit to an instructor in using your text rather than competing titles?

 

7. Production Considerations: Estimate when you plan to complete your manuscript. Estimate the manuscript’s word count and the number of photographs and other illustrations (maps, diagrams, graphs, etc.) that you plan to include. Please include sample images.

 

8. Course Materials: If your book is intended primarily for course use, please describe any ancillary material you would be willing to share (PowerPoint slides, sample syllabi, study questions, charts, graphs, pictures, videos).

 

9. Writing Samples: If you have already drafted book chapters, or have writing samples that are germane to your proposed subject, please include them with the proposal.

 

10. Submission: If you are submitting files larger than 2MB(high-resolution art samples for example), please send them via a file-sharing service such as Box, Dropbox, or WeTransfer.

 

11. Is there any other information that would be helpful to us as we consider your project?
 

 

 


 References

 

Acknowledgements   

Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Sue Gemmell, Portland.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone. Portland activist & 2020 mayoral candidate. 
Mark Lakeman, Communitecture / City Repair Project, Portland
Margarette Leite, PSU Center for Public Interest Design
Michael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.
Julia Mollner, Carleton Hart Architecture & PSU Center for Public Interest Design
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Alastair Parvin, Open Systems Lab, London.
Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
Sherry Shultz, Springfield/Eugene MicroDwellers.
Eli Spevak, Portland Planning and Sustainability Commission.

 

 

Authors/editor bio notes

 

To Do

- review Tent City Urbanism, and references section. 
- research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven 
- villagebuildings twitter.
- VB logo?
- VB domain registration
- VB site 

 

Potential research visits

Jolene's First Cousin project, Portland

Kenton Women's Village new site. 

Seattle - LIHI, current villages, BLOCK Project, prefab ADU developers.

Eugene & Cottage Grove - update on SquareOne Villages projects. 

Tiny House Villages in north Bay / Sonoma?  (Darin Dinsmore)

Oakland - Community Cabin sites, Safe Parking sites. 

Fresno - any tiny-house-on-wheels ADUs?

Los Angeles - Skid Row

Las Vegas - Llamalopolis / Airstream Park.
https://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house/llamalopolis-an-urban-tiny-living-oasis/ (2016 article with lots of photographs). 

Vancouver, B.C. - Temporary Modular Housing projects. 

 

Things to read next: 

(see also updated list in Tim's Workflowy)