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= Village Buildings: patterns for affordable housing from Oregon =
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[[File:Shelter-Wise-POD-Design-tiny-house-for-the-homeless.jpg|thumb|right|400px|POD Initiative]]
  
A proposal for book and web publishing project, initially developed for entry to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy RFP or general funding.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles: Revillaging the World; A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.
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'''Village Buildings: reinventing&nbsp;affordable housing from the bottom up.&nbsp;'''
  
Author: Tim McCormick<br/> Short link to Google Doc version: &nbsp;[https://bit.ly/village-buildings bit.ly/village-buildings]&nbsp;- last updated 29 Aug 2019<br/> [http://tjm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Revillaging-the-World_book-proposal_2019-03-11.pdf Latest PDF version] (11 March 2019).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; __TOC__
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A&nbsp;book and web&nbsp;project in progress, initially developed as a proposal&nbsp;to the [https://mmt.org/ Meyer Memorial Trust]'s spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals).&nbsp;by Tim McCormick.&nbsp;<br/> Alternate titles:<br/> ''Revillaging the World'';<br/> ''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon''.
  
== Project history & possibilities ==
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This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles.&nbsp;
  
=== Name ideas:&nbsp; ===
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&nbsp;
  
Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon<br/> This expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011.&nbsp;
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= Introduction / background =
  
Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
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== Oregon utopian colonies, communes, planning&nbsp; ==
  
The Oregon Housing Experiment
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=== Portland Downtown Plan ===
  
The Portland Experiment&nbsp;
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See article:&nbsp; [[Portland_Downtown_Plan|Portland Downtown Plan]]
  
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon
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=== Oregon land use reform ===
  
(the above three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
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See article [[Oregon_land_use_reform|Oregon land use reform]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== Publishing design concepts ===
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== International tradition of self-build&nbsp;housing advocacy ==
  
&nbsp; &nbsp;1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
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*squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.&nbsp; See article: [[One_night_house|One night house]]
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*UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
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*Latin America - JFC Turner "Freedom to Build"
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*US community/occupation housing 1960s-
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*1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
  
&nbsp; &nbsp;2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable.&nbsp;
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= Early Oregon villages for the homeless =
  
&nbsp; &nbsp;3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource.&nbsp;
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== Dignity Village ==
  
&nbsp; &nbsp;4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact.&nbsp;
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interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman
  
=== <br/> "Revillaging the Book"&nbsp;- co-op funding and profit sharing ===
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uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village<br/> <br/> See article: [[Dignity_Village|Dignity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake.&nbsp;
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== Opportunity Village, Eugene ==
  
A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.
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See main article [[Opportunity_Village|Opportunity Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification.&nbsp;
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== Right 2 Dream Too ==
  
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
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See main article [[Right_2_Dream_Too|Right 2 Dream Too]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions ===
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== Hazelnut Grove ==
  
Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository.&nbsp;<br/> "56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more. &nbsp;This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki. &nbsp;Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki. &nbsp;His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository. &nbsp;Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press.
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interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove
<blockquote>
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''"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains. &nbsp;We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share."''
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</blockquote>
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I've been discussion with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.<br/> &nbsp;
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== 2. Intro/Background &nbsp; ==
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See main article [[Hazelnut_Grove|Hazelnut Grove]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== Meyer Trust, Cost Efficiencies Work Group ===
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== others in OR & elsewhere ==
  
"Meyer Memorial Trust convened a Cost Efficiencies Work Group in 2014 to explore factors driving the cost of affordable housing development. Sixteen experts from development, construction, finance and related fields formed the Work Group and were charged with three major tasks:<br/> — Creating a clear and concise summary of key factors affecting the cost of developing affordable housing;<br/> — Identifying opportunities – whether policy and systems changes, or innovative approaches to design, construction and financing – to deliver affordable units at a lower cost; and<br/> — Advising Meyer on pilot or demonstration projects to test new approaches to affordable housing development.<br/> This report synthesizes the results of this work over the last year. Click to download the PDF report HERE: [https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf]. "
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See main article [[Village_model|Village model]]&nbsp;
  
== <br/> A Pattern Language of approaches, illustrated by projects in Oregon ==
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&nbsp;
  
=== 1. Regional / Statewide land-use management and Upzoning: &nbsp; ===
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= Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design =
  
Oregon tradition of housing/land-use innovation
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See article: [[Center_for_Public_Interest_Design|Center for Public Interest Design]].
  
examples of globally known initiatives from 1970s -- urban growth boundary law, 1st freeway removal, SB100 -- &nbsp;and the current HB2001 bill from House Speaker, Tina Kotek (D, Portland).&nbsp;<br/> Right: Governor Tom McCall, creator of Oregon's pathbreaking state land-use law.
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== Connecting global practices of informal,&nbsp;community-based, participatory development ==
  
See history:&nbsp;<br/> "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Michael Andersen, Sightline, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;
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&nbsp;
  
examples of SB100 (from 1970s) and the current HB2001 bill from House Speaker, Tina Kotek (D, north Portland). Compare also to currently proposed Washington State legislation.&nbsp;
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== Teddy Cruz interview ==
  
=== <br/> 2. Mixed-Income ('Social') Housing: ===
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&nbsp;from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID,&nbsp;on ''OPB Think Out Loud'' [Blanchard 2012]:
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<blockquote>''"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models.'' ''"So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations.&nbsp;'' ''"In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words,&nbsp;the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing."&nbsp;''</blockquote>
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&nbsp;
  
&nbsp; &nbsp; a) integrated WWII wartime housing: Henry Kaiser's Vanport, the largest public housing development in nation. Privately built. (see picture at right).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; a) Municipal: example of Headwaters Apartments/Village development -- current McCormick family apartment.&nbsp;
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= Village Coalition & POD Initiative =
  
&nbsp; &nbsp; b) Privately developed: e.g. HUD Section 236 mixed-income housing in 1960s-70s, which sometimes achieved a wide income range and sustainable cross-subsidization. E.g. King Dishman Apartments (Albina, Portland) and Aloha Park Apartments (Hillsboro), both developed in early 1970s by John McCormick with Urban Associates. &nbsp; &nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; c) discussion of income-diverse housing in the Portland Downtown Plan (1972).<br/> &nbsp;
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== Cross-sector coalition and design, to&nbsp;convene deep&nbsp;community response ==
  
=== 3. Accessory Dwellings ===
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See article: [[Village_Coalition|Village Coalition]]
  
&nbsp; a. City of Portland ADU program<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;b. Prefab & financing models: Dweller startup.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;c. Accessory Dwelling initiative from PSU Institute for Sustainable Solutions, &nbsp;and component Small Backyard Homes Initiative from PSU CPID (Portland State University, School of Architecture, Center for Public Interest Design) &nbsp;(image right: "Insert House," from Small Backyard Homes Initiative).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; d. [Subsidized] Affordable ADUs - AADUs.<br/> Multnomah Innovation Lab - Home For All program - subsidized ADUs for formerly homeless.<br/> See also Los Angeles County Homeless Inititiative, Housing Innovation Challenge (Smith 2009).&nbsp;
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Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni
  
=== <br/> 4. Pocket neighborhood, cohousing, villages ===
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POD Initative
  
projects from Ross Chapin, Orange Splot & Communitecture, and SquareOne Villages. &nbsp;
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*description.  
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*see main article [[POD_Initiative|POD Initiative]]
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*interview/feature: Todd Ferry
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*Project descriptions
  
=== <br/> 5. Private affordable housing&nbsp; ===
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Plywood POD Initiative
  
- low income, low cost, built without subsidy<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;a) Guerrilla Development / Kevin Cavenaugh, Portland -- Jolene's First Cousin project and model, for low-cost, private, SRO-type homes for formerly homeless, cross-subsidized by market-rate residences and commercial space. See: "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by Eileen Park, KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. &nbsp;[https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;b) Rob Justus / Home First Development projects - building affordable housing (60% AMI and lower) without subsidies. See [Monahan 2017].&nbsp;
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*description
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*See main article:&nbsp; [[Plywood_POD_Initiative|Plywood POD Initiative]]  
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*Project descriptions<br/> &nbsp;  
  
=== <br/> 6. Lot division / Condominiumization for small housing ===
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== Kenton Women's and later villages ==
  
Eli Spevak / Orange Splot: creating dense infill with separate ownership.
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interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation
  
=== <br/> 7. Interim / redeployable housing ===
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See main article: [[Kenton_Women's_Village|Kenton Women's Village]]<br/> &nbsp;
  
POD Initiative - interim use of affordable housing sites. &nbsp;(right: "Portable Adaptive Unit, for POD Initiative, by SERA Architects, Portland).&nbsp;<br/> Opportunity Village, Eugene.&nbsp;<br/> PAD Initiative.
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Clackamas County Veteran's Village
  
=== 8. Alternative technologies: ===
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See main article: [[Clackamas_County_Veteran's_Village|Clackamas County Veteran's Village]]
  
modular, manufactured, pre-fab, etc.
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<br/> Agape Village
  
=== <br/> 9. Inclusionary housing&nbsp; ===
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See main article: [[Agape_Village|Agape Village]]
  
- Pearl District example.<br/> - new Portland mandatory inclusionary housing (2018- ).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
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= <br/> Permanent villages =
  
=== 10. Community Land Trusts&nbsp; ===
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== <br/> Emerald Village, Eugene ==
  
Cully Land Trust
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See main article: [[Emerald_Village|Emerald Village]]
  
Proud Ground program:
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house plans<br/> &nbsp;
  
"Proud Ground creates permanently affordable homeownership opportunities for first-time homebuyers using the Community Land Trust model...Founded in 1999, Proud Ground became the first city-wide entity to provide permanently affordable homeownership opportunities and since has expanded to five counties – Clackamas, Clark, Lincoln, Multnomah, and Washington – to better meet the needs of working families. &nbsp;Proud Ground has become one of the largest community land trusts in the country, having served over 350 families in a permanently affordable portfolio of over 280 homes."
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Cottage Village, Cottage Grove
  
=== <br/> 11. Vouchers - local, state, and/or Federal&nbsp; ===
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See main article: [[Cottage_Village|Cottage Village]]
  
2017 pilot from Home Forward (Portland city housing agency) for local vouchers. &nbsp;Vouchers funded by Meyer Memorial Trust, administered through Home Forward.&nbsp;<br/> See also: "Income-based housing benefit" article on YIMBY Wiki for overview of related programs globally.&nbsp;
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house plans<br/> &nbsp;
  
=== <br/> 12. Statewide rent control ===
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= Cluster/co-op infill housing =
  
Just passed by Oregon legislature, the first in the nation!
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== Co-op/condo villages&nbsp; ==
  
=== <br/> 13. Bond and General funding - local & state ===
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See also main article: [[Cluster_housing|Cluster housing]].
  
(the "public option").&nbsp;
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[[Cully_Grove|Cully Grove]]
  
=== <br/> 14. Abundant, or "Naturally occurring affordable" housing.&nbsp; ===
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[[Sabin_Green|Sabin Green]]
  
Analyze and estimate how much market housing -- historically and currently and potentially -- becomes available annually to, or is occupied by, lower-income households at an affordable price.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; I.e. put in context to what degree new & filtered market housing has, does, or might 'supply''affordable housing, compared to other means considered.''
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City of Milwaukie study
  
== <br/> Meyer Trust - Cost Efficiency program pilots ==
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potential for under OR HB2001 & Portland RIP program
  
‪The final report of the Cost Efficiencies Work Group, The Cost of Affordable Housing Development in Oregon, was completed in October 2015 ‬<br/> Five innovative pilot projects last year (with predevelopment grants under a Request for Proposals that elicited 17 proposals overall)‬:<br/> &nbsp;
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== <br/> New congregate housing ==
  
=== ‪Northwest Housing Alternatives&nbsp; ===
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LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects
  
($400,000) — Building a replicable, efficient small project that is not reliant on 9 percent Low Income Housing Tax Credits for funding‬<br/> ‪This project, underway in Oregon City, will draw on and develop lessons from several other NHA projects around the state at different stages of development (in Hermiston, Hillsboro and Florence). In addition to rigorously focusing on cost-efficiency in design, NHA (working closely with its contractor Walsh Construction) will compare the feasibility of using factory-built modular housing with the most cost-efficient approach to site-built housing.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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See article:&nbsp; [[LISAH|LISAH]]
  
=== ‪REACH CDC&nbsp; ===
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Jolene's First Cousin - Guerilla Development
  
($400,000) — Adapting “Lean” manufacturing to affordable housing on a large project in Southeast Portland.‬<br/> Lean planning and coordination, typically associated with manufacturing processes, depends on an intensely collaborative and iterative approach to design and execution. The Lean approach taps into the collective expertise of the project team, identifies waste and inefficiencies, and focuses on continuous learning to improve workflow. By working closely from the outset of the design process with the general contractor (Walsh Construction), subcontractors, architect and other project partners, REACH hopes to achieve significant cost savings over a more typical affordable housing development.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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See article: [[Jolene's_First_Cousin|Jolene's First Cousin]]
  
=== ‪SquareOne Villages&nbsp; ===
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&nbsp;
  
($200,000) — Developing a new tiny-house village in Cottage Grove, with an emphasis on assisting other grass-roots efforts at low-cost housing.‬<br/> SquareOne is building upon its recent successes in Lane County (with Opportunity Village Eugene and Emerald Village Eugene) in providing basic, extremely low-cost housing drawing on grass-roots support. As it begins work on its latest project in Cottage Grove, SquareOne will distill what it has learned to date into a Toolbox and training kit meant to help other small Oregon communities with fewer local housing resources replicate the approach.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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= Meyer Cost Efficiencies program&nbsp; =
  
=== ‪Transition Projects Inc.&nbsp; ===
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Transition Projects Inc - modular housing - [[LISAH|LISAH]].
  
($500,000) — Piloting efficient and flexible modular housing designs.‬<br/> At the core of TPI’s proposal is an innovative modular approach to design and construction that can be combined and configured in a variety of ways, including some single-room occupancy units with shared bath and kitchen facilities. Like the NHA project, TPI will work closely with its partner on this project (Housing Development Center) to compare and evaluate whether factory-built modules can be cost competitive with site-built versions of the units. This “kit of parts” approach will be piloted on an unusually shaped property in North Portland that would be difficult to develop with a conventional apartment building. HDC hopes to then partner with Northwest Oregon Housing Authority (NOHA) to replicate this approach to pilot low-cost workforce housing on the north coast.‬<br/> &nbsp;
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"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project
  
=== ‪Innovative Housing Inc.&nbsp; ===
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SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village
  
The fifth predevelopment project (creation of a new rental housing community using manufactured homes in East Portland, led by Innovative Housing Inc.) is not proceeding as originally proposed but has surfaced important lessons for when and where manufactured housing might be a good choice for affordable developers.‬
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&nbsp;
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= Million Month Challenge program&nbsp; =
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Program of Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;
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See main article: [[Million_Month_Challenge|Million Month Challenge]]
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proposals Fall 2018
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awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Million Month Challenge proposals ==
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= Future paths =
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== Village cluster housing ==
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villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program?&nbsp;
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[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.].&nbsp;
  
Fall 2018 grant program from Meyer Trust:
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a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.
  
"Bring us your best ideas for guaranteeing 1 million months of affordability, using as little public subsidy as possible.<br/> &nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;<br/> Program explanation:&nbsp;<br/> "This takes a bit of unpacking. There are many possible paths to 1 million months; here are some potential examples to illustrate the kinds of ideas this could include:<br/> Piloting an approach to build, site and deliver new factory-built units meant to be affordable for 20 years that would aim for just under 4,200 units (240 months x 4,167 units = just over 1,000,000 months of affordability)<br/> Creating affordable units for 60 years with lower rents through cross-subsidy from other income-producing uses in the same properties, aiming to scale up to about 1,400 total units (720 months x 1,389 units = over 1,000,000 months)<br/> Maybe your best idea doesn't involve building any new housing? Exploring a sustainable approach to master-leasing new units in the private-market for five-year increments, staggered over time, to assist nearly 17,000 households five years at a time (60 x 16,667 = over 1,000,000)<br/> "The key point is that we are leaving it up to people who know the most about these challenges to define how to reach the goal. We're framing the goal this way to emphasize flexibility and focus on the outcomes:<br/> Flexibility: This is less about developing "projects" than creating a viable model or path; we are explicitly open to purely financial strategies that deliver on the outcome of creating more access to affordable housing.<br/> Outcomes: We are not necessarily focused on production of units (although more housing is important, and some strategies will rightly focus on that), but rather on the end-goal of housing large numbers of people for an extended period of time.<br/> "Finally, it's worth highlighting that we're pulling the focus away from the raw total development cost to focus on what really matters most: the amount of public subsidy required to achieve the goal.<br/> "Unlike a typical Meyer RFP, we're not looking for affordable housing projects per se, but a model or path that changes the game. You could say we're trying to "get out of the way" of solving these problems, by putting as few limitations as possible on what counts as a solution. We're calling the question for those who insist that the current system doesn't deliver bang-for-the-buck and there are better ways to do things. Ultimately, the point of this RFP is to give you an opportunity (and some resources) to take an idea or a notion or intuition that you've been thinking about and build it out to a full-fledged plan, test it, improve it and share it.<br/> "Sharing ideas, results and lessons learned will be a central part of participating in this experiment. Project teams funded under this RFP will be expected to participate in a learning cohort with each other, sharing and critiquing ideas, and helping each other refine and improve each model. Additionally, Meyer will create a variety of platforms and public events to highlight this work, to broaden the circle of folks around the state trying to think about these challenges in a different way and improve upon the ways we help people into housing they can afford, and ultimately to help public funders and other partners identify new models and approaches worth their support.
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Creative by community capital rather than financial capital.<br/> &nbsp;
  
Movable / Anchorable Homes&nbsp;<br/> New Starter Homes aka PAD Initiative proposal for Million Month Challenge, submitted by Village Coalition & Tim McCormick. &nbsp;See images below:&nbsp;
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== Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages?&nbsp; ==
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== Projects elsewhere&nbsp; ==
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== Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use ==
  
[possibly, these are woven into sections above by theme, rather than in section by themselves. E.g. for interim housing, Vancouver's Temporary Modular Housing projects, London's Y-cube, etc.]
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&nbsp; &nbsp;PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes projects
  
== <br/> Key concepts / issues&nbsp; ==
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&nbsp;
  
i.e., a "pattern language of objections / controversies": survey, anticipate, discuss in good faith the most commonly raised objections or controversies).&nbsp;<br/> - when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs?&nbsp;<br/> - affordability and housing standards&nbsp;<br/> - issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;<br/> - stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;<br/> - housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;<br/> - long-term cost issues<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- maintainability, durability<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- community and dweller acceptance.&nbsp;
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== Constructing&nbsp;a legal right to housing ==
  
<br/> IV. Appendix 1: Cost Efficiencies Report, 2015<br/> [https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf. https://mmt.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Cost-Efficiencies10_1_15.pdf.&nbsp;]
+
Alexander, Lisa T [2015]. &nbsp;"[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing]."&nbsp;94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).<br/> Available at:&nbsp;[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766].<br/> <br/> ''"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order.&nbsp;''<br/> <br/> Note particularly:&nbsp;&nbsp;<br/> ''III.&nbsp;Occupying the American Right to Housing<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless''
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
== <br/> Works Cited ==
+
= Problem/objection patterns =
  
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams.<br/> ''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building.''&nbsp;1979<br/> &nbsp;  
+
(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses).&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
1) temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness.&nbsp;<br/> [shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness].&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
2) We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding.&nbsp;<br/> Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
3) If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
4)&nbsp;when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs?&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
5)&nbsp;affordability and housing standards&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
6) issues with government funding restrictions / mandates.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
7) stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
8) US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
9) housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
10) long-term cost issues<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- maintainability, durability<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;-- community and dweller acceptance.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Appendix: A pattern language for housing affordability =
 +
 
 +
See main article: [[A_Pattern_Language_for_Housing_Affordability|A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability]]
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Appendix: Project/book ideas =
 +
 
 +
== Name ideas ==
 +
 
 +
*'''Revillaging the World'''<sup>1</sup>: new models for affordable housing from Oregon<br/> <sup>1</sup>this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''Village Buildings''': new affordable housing models from Oregon<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''The Oregon Housing Experiment'''<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''The Portland Experiment'''&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*'''A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing''': New Models from Oregon
 +
 
 +
(the last&nbsp;three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oregon_Experiment The Oregon Experiment] (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Pattern_Language A Pattern Language] (1977) and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Timeless_Way_of_Building The Timeless Way of Building] (1979)."<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;"A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Book/publishing design concepts ==
 +
 
 +
&nbsp; 1. '''developed incrementally''' by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.<br/> &nbsp; STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles.&nbsp;This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.&nbsp; b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;&nbsp; c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.&nbsp; d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing.&nbsp;<br/> <br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; a) "'''pattern language'''" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; b) '''Holistic / "overview" angle''': e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;3. Potentially, "'''living book'''" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp;4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into '''Wikipedia''', YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Sponsor / collaborator roles & opportunities ==
 +
 
 +
Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:
 +
 
 +
*SquareOne Villages&nbsp;
 +
*Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design&nbsp;
 +
*Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
 +
*City Repair Project
 +
*Sustasis Foundation, Portland
 +
*Architecture firms that have done&nbsp;POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== <br/> Relation to other books / web resources ==
 +
 
 +
''Tent City Urbanism'' book (2014):&nbsp;consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps ossible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint?&nbsp;<br/> -> avoid redundant material.<br/> -> consider what are natural&nbsp;follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp; &nbsp; -> new conceptual extensions.&nbsp;&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
CPID publications / publicity
 +
 
 +
Meyer Memorial Trust materials.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Village Coalition site.
 +
 
 +
Housing.wiki.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
STRATEGY:&nbsp; establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from ''Village Buildings'' to the other partners.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
STRATEGY:&nbsp; set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;&nbsp; b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia.&nbsp;<br/> --> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== "Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding ==
 +
 
 +
A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake.&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.
 +
 
 +
In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification.&nbsp;<br/> The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "[http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper Cooperative Product Development]" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
== Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions&nbsp; ==
 +
 
 +
Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository.&nbsp;
 +
<blockquote>"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more. &nbsp;This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki. &nbsp;Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki. &nbsp;His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository. &nbsp;Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press.&nbsp;</blockquote> <blockquote>
 +
''"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains. &nbsp;We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "''
 +
</blockquote>
 +
<br/> We've been discussing&nbsp;with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.
 +
 
 +
----
 +
 
 +
= &nbsp;Bibliography / Works Cited =
 +
 
 +
*Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams. &nbsp; &nbsp;<br/> ___.&nbsp;''The Oregon Experiment'', 1975.<br/> ___. ''A Pattern Language'', 1977<br/> ___. ''The Timeless Way of Building'', 1979<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Alexander, Lisa T [2015]. &nbsp;"[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing]."&nbsp;94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at:&nbsp;[https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766 https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall" &nbsp;["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Heben, Andrew. ''Tent City Urbanism'' (2014).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Aquilino, Marie, ed. ''Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity''. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).<br/> ISBN 9781935202479<br/> [https://www.amazon.com/Beyond-Shelter-Architecture-Human-Dignity/dp/1935202472 [1]].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 1. Architecture after disaster&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --<br/> Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --<br/> News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --<br/> From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 2. What should governments do?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --<br/> Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --<br/> What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 3. Urban risk and recovery&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --<br/> Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --<br/> Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --<br/> Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --<br/> Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 4. Environmental resilience&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --<br/> The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --<br/> Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --<br/> On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 5. Teaching as strategic action&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --<br/> Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --<br/> Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp;Part 6. Is prevention possible?&nbsp;:&nbsp;''<br/> More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --<br/> Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --<br/> Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --<br/> Afterword&nbsp;:&nbsp;<br/> Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.<br/> &nbsp;
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. &nbsp;Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." The Seattle Times, 26 February 2016. [https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/ https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/].<br/> &nbsp;
*McCormick, Tim [2016]. "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016.&nbsp;[http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Blanchard, Dave. [2012].&nbsp;"Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. ''OPB Think Out Loud'', October 3rd 2012.&nbsp;[https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/ https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/].<br/> MP3: [https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3 https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3].<br/> &nbsp;
*Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. ''Willamette Week'', March 21, 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Chapin, Ross. ''Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World''. (2011).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Chomei, Kamo, et al. ''Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike''. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". ''Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less''. 2018.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Douglas, Gordon C.C. ''The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism''. (2018).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Hayden, Dolores. ''Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing, and Family Life''. (??)<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Heben,&nbsp;Andrew. ''Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*____. "2014 in Review: A Pivotal Year for Tiny House Villages." Tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2014. [http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*____. "2015 in Review: Tiny House Villages progress as traditional housing options continue to fall short." tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2015. [http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America." &nbsp;in ''Discovering the Vernacular Landscape&nbsp;''(1984).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kahn, Lloyd. ''Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter'' (2012).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. ''Shelter''. (2nd edition, 2000).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Kern, Ken. ''The Owner-Built Home''. (Homestead Press, 1972).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." [https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/ https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/]. Accessed 11 March 2019.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*McCormick, Tim [2016]. "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. [http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Mitchell, Ryan. ''Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet''. (2014).<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply." &nbsp;[on Rob Justus / Home First Development]. &nbsp;Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.&nbsp; [https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. [[10.15760/etd.36]].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*The Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015. [https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html].<br/> ''&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;"Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."''<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by &nbsp;KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. [https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
*Smith, Doug [2019]. "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." ''Los Angeles Times'', Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
+
*Smith, Doug [2019]. "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. [https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;
*Waldroupe, Amanda [2017]. "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." ''Street Roots'', 23 Jun 2017. [http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers].  
+
*Tafari, Jack. "[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html We Need a Tent City]."&nbsp;''Street Roots&nbsp;''(Portland), October 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. "The future."&nbsp;''Street Roots,&nbsp;''December 2000.&nbsp;[http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. "A brief history of the Out of the Doorways campaign, part one." Street Roots, 6 Dec 2009.<br/> [https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Turner, John F. C. [1972a]. "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed.&nbsp;Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process (1972).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Turner, John F. C. [1976]&nbsp;''Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments''.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Turner, John F. C., ed [1972]. ''Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process''.1972.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. [https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 +
*Waldroupe, Amanda [2017]. "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." Street Roots, 23 Jun 2017. [http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Walker, Lester. ''A Little House of My Own: 47 Grand Designs for 47 Tiny Houses''. 2000. [? check for earlier edition]<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Ward, Colin.&nbsp;''Housing: An Anarchist Approach&nbsp;''(1976).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Ward, Colin.&nbsp;''Talking Houses.&nbsp;''(London: Freedom House, 1990).&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [2002]. ''Cotters and Squatters: Housing's Hidden History''. (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2002).<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___, [2002b]. "The Worldwide One-night House." Open Democracy, 2002, [http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp] [accessed 27 October 2009].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [2004]. "The Hidden History of Housing." (London: History and Policy, September 2004); [http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [?] "Walter Segal: Community Architect." Walter Segal Self Build Trust, [http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html] [accessed 15 February 2010].<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*___. [?] ''Autonomy, Solidarity, Possibility: The Colin Ward Reader''. Edited by Damian F. White and Chris Wilbert.&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*Wikipedia. "Dignity Village."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dignity_Village https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dignity_Village]. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.<br/> &nbsp;
 +
*____. "Jack Tafari."&nbsp;[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari]. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.&nbsp;
  
== <br/> Acknowledgements ==
+
&nbsp;
  
See also: Acknowledgements on "New Starter Homes" proposal document.<br/> <br/> Also thanks for feedback from:<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene<br/> Sarah Iannarone - Portland State University<br/> MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP - Portland<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland
+
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Acknowledgements &nbsp;&nbsp; =
 +
 
 +
''Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:''<br/> Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.<br/> Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.<br/> Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.<br/> Sarah Iannarone<br/> Margarette Leite, Center for Public Interest Design<br/> MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.<br/> John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.<br/> Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust.&nbsp;<br/> Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= Authors/editor bio notes =
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
= To Do =
 +
 
 +
- review&nbsp;''Tent City Urbanism,&nbsp;''and references section.&nbsp;<br/> - research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven&nbsp;<br/> - villagebuildings twitter.<br/> - VB logo?<br/> - VB domain registration<br/> - VB site&nbsp;<br/> <br/> &nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;

Latest revision as of 16:40, 17 October 2019

POD Initiative

Village Buildings: reinventing affordable housing from the bottom up. 

A book and web project in progress, initially developed as a proposal to the Meyer Memorial Trust's spring 2019 Advocacy or general funding RFPs (Request For Proposals). by Tim McCormick. 
Alternate titles:
Revillaging the World;
A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: Models from Oregon.

This page is book draft / outline, mostly linking to individual sections which are being developed as independent articles. 

 

Contents

Introduction / background

Oregon utopian colonies, communes, planning 

Portland Downtown Plan

See article:  Portland Downtown Plan

Oregon land use reform

See article Oregon land use reform
 

International tradition of self-build housing advocacy

  • squatter / "One-night house" global tradition in law & folklore - cf Colin Ward histories.  See article: One night house
  • UK - Walter Segal self-build method - council housing, Lewisham, London
  • Latin America - JFC Turner "Freedom to Build"
  • US community/occupation housing 1960s-
  • 1960s onward - alternative housing - Whole Earth catalog, Shelter Publishing, etc 
     

Early Oregon villages for the homeless

Dignity Village

interview/features: Ibrahim Mubarek, Mark Lakeman

uniqueness: perhaps first US permanent city-sanctioned, resident-established village

See article: Dignity Village
 

Opportunity Village, Eugene

See main article Opportunity Village
 

Right 2 Dream Too

See main article Right 2 Dream Too
 

Hazelnut Grove

interview/feature: Vahid Brown, Village Coalition, Hazelnut Grove

See main article Hazelnut Grove
 

others in OR & elsewhere

See main article Village model 

 

Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design

See article: Center for Public Interest Design.

Connecting global practices of informal, community-based, participatory development

 

Teddy Cruz interview

 from interview with Teddy Cruz, 2012 Visiting Professor at CPID, on OPB Think Out Loud [Blanchard 2012]:

"I've been interested in documenting many of the, what I call stealth activities that happen in many neighborhoods of immigrants who come and maybe plug an economy into a garage, or maybe build a granny flat that is illegal, just to support an extended family... much of this incredible social and economic entrepreneurship sometimes is not really included in the zoning regulation, and in a sense I've been trying to amplify how this activity in the hands of immigrants comes to retrofit the monoculture and mono-use parcels of many of these older neighborhoods could be the DNA to in fact rethink land use and ultimately housing models. "So I think that what we are talking about maybe in Portland in the context of these projects and these initiatives is pretty much the same. It may not be immigrants per se, but it's really about the entrepreneurship also of youth, and how their activity can begin to inspire the reorganization of housing models, and here is then when architects come in, maybe not as designers of buildings only, but maybe as designers of interface systems that can begin to enable to very different idea of housing altogather. By that I mean whether it is governance or development or academia, we tend to think of housing only as units of housing, instead of maybe imagining housing as an incubator of economy, or maybe as a catalyst for a kind of cultural and social relations.  "In a sense I've been in trouble with my own field of architecture, because I've been critical of architects who only focus on buildings, Instead I think we really need to begin to understand the broader set of relations. In other words, the future of the city at this moment of crisis depends less on buildings, and more on the reconfiguration of social and economic relations. I think there is a huge potential that Outside In, the agencies that are so progressive, in cities equally progressive as Portland, can begin to lead the way in reimagining what we mean by housing." 

 

Village Coalition & POD Initiative

Cross-sector coalition and design, to convene deep community response

See article: Village Coalition

Interview/feature: Sergio Palleroni

POD Initative

  • description.
  • see main article POD Initiative
  • interview/feature: Todd Ferry
  • Project descriptions

Plywood POD Initiative

Kenton Women's and later villages

interview/feature: Sarah Iannarone, members of Lents occupation

See main article: Kenton Women's Village
 

Clackamas County Veteran's Village

See main article: Clackamas County Veteran's Village


Agape Village

See main article: Agape Village


Permanent villages


Emerald Village, Eugene

See main article: Emerald Village

house plans
 

Cottage Village, Cottage Grove

See main article: Cottage Village

house plans
 

Cluster/co-op infill housing

Co-op/condo villages 

See also main article: Cluster housing.

Cully Grove

Sabin Green

City of Milwaukie study

potential for under OR HB2001 & Portland RIP program


New congregate housing

LISAH - Low Income Single Adult Housing - Transition Projects

See article:  LISAH

Jolene's First Cousin - Guerilla Development

See article: Jolene's First Cousin

 

Meyer Cost Efficiencies program 

Transition Projects Inc - modular housing - LISAH.

"Lean" manufacturing": REACH CDC - SE PDX project

SquareOne Villages - Cottage Grove Village

 

Million Month Challenge program 

Program of Meyer Memorial Trust. 

See main article: Million Month Challenge

proposals Fall 2018

awardee projects - updates from Sept 2019

 

Future paths

Village cluster housing

villages as cluster housing / pocket neighborhoods - enabled by state law HB2001 and Portland RIP program? 

[add here my article on this in Village Collaborative group -tim.]. 

a path to larger co-operative building approaches, eg Baugruppe.

Creative by community capital rather than financial capital.
 

Refugee, emergency, climate-change, & eco- villages? 

 

Redeployable tiny homes for village / ADU crossover use

   PAD Initiative / New Starter Homes projects

 

Constructing a legal right to housing

Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015).
Available at: https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766.

"This Article's central thesis is that the conflict and contestation between [U.S. housing rights movements and private property advocates who seek to thwart these movements' efforts] helps forge new understandings of how local housing and property entitlements can be equitably allocated, consistent with the human right to housing and U.S. constitutional norms. While there is no formal federal, state, or constitutional right to housing in America, these movements' illegal occupations and local housing reforms concretize the human right to housing in local American laws, associate the human right to housing with well-accepted constitutional norms, and establish the contours of the human right to housing in the American legal consciousness.' These movements construct the human right to housing in American law by establishing through private and local laws a right to remain, a right to adequate and sustainable shelter, a right to housing in a location that preserves cultural heritage, a right to a self-determined community, and a right to equal housing opportunities for non-property owners, among other rights. By challenging local property rights, these movements also demonstrate how non-property owners, who lack adequate housing, also lack equal dignity, equal opportunity, equal citizenship, privacy, personal autonomy, and self-determination-all norms explicit in the U.S. constitutional order. 

Note particularly:  
III. Occupying the American Right to Housing
   A. Eminent Domain for Squatters' Control of Land 
   B. Eminent Domain for Local Principal Reduction
   C. Zoning Micro-Homes for the Homeless

 

Problem/objection patterns

(i.e. commonly raised objections, & responses). 

1) temporary' housing or shelter is now widely deprecated as a homelessness response, in US & European official/mainstream positions. It is said to divert from the real solution, permanent housing, and it doesn't end homelessness. 
[shelter and temporary housing are now defined to be states of homelessness]. 

2) We shouldn't endorse the idea that low- or very-low-income housing can be created without public subsidy -- this undermines the ongoing urgent effort to increase public funding. 
Homeless and low-income people shouldn't be expected to take less/different or 'substandard' housing vs other people. 

3) If acceptable housing standards (e.g. dwelling space, facilities) are lowered in cases or one area, it allows or creates pressure for them to be lowered more widely, and this will lower living standards for many. 

4) when/how do lower development costs result in lower housing costs? 

5) affordability and housing standards 

6) issues with government funding restrictions / mandates. 

7) stigma on or deliberate demarcation (positive or negative) on social housing. 

8) US case of restricted and differentiated style/materials, vs e.g. WPA, Vienna, UK examples of positive socialist and civic symbolism. 

9) housing diversity - letting dwellers choose/adapt housing that matches their value priorities. 

10) long-term cost issues
   -- maintainability, durability
   -- community and dweller acceptance.
 

Appendix: A pattern language for housing affordability

See main article: A Pattern Language for Housing Affordability

 

Appendix: Project/book ideas

Name ideas

  • Revillaging the World1: new models for affordable housing from Oregon
    1this expression is used and I think was possibly coined by Mark Lakeman of Communitecture / Village Repair Project, Portland. Discuss use with him "Revillaging the city" was apparently used by Dan Yashinsky as far back as 2011. 
     
  • Village Buildings: new affordable housing models from Oregon
     
  • The Oregon Housing Experiment
     
  • The Portland Experiment 
     
  • A Pattern Language for Affordable Housing: New Models from Oregon

(the last three titles allude to works of Christopher Alexander et al: The Oregon Experiment (1975), which "describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's later published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language (1977) and The Timeless Way of Building (1979)."
   "A pattern language is a method of describing good design practices or patterns of useful organization within a field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexander and popularized by his 1977 book A Pattern Language." (Wikipedia). 
 

 

Book/publishing design concepts

  1. developed incrementally by writing & disseminating articles, gathering feedback, soliciting suggestions for approaches/projects to include, and most usable ways to present.
  STRATEGY: to extent possible, keep developing the project in public wiki, in relatively self-contained sub-topic articles. This means: a) it's never really yet-unpublished, it's just a gradually or steadily improving state.  b) open for others to contribute, ask questions, give feedback;  c) sub-topic articles may be useful for other purposes too, as soon as they're created.  d) a 'book' will be just a certain gathering-point from this material, but overall it can continue developing. 

   2. Graphically innovative, bold design emphasizing 
      a) "pattern language" approach of mapping very wide range of approaches, and analyzing how different projects may embody multiple patterns to various degrees. 
      b) Holistic / "overview" angle: e.g. provide estimates for how much housing and what affordability impact each approach might conceivably enable. 
   3. Potentially, "living book" approach where book-in-progress turns into web-hosted living version of book which can collaboratively evolve to include new projects, concepts, research, bibliography. Cross-referenced to e.g. Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, etc to build completeness as a reference resource. 
   4. Key book contents such as project discussions and analyses of patterns may be adapted into Wikipedia, YIMBYwiki, and/or other open online resources, for maximum dissemination and impact. 
 

Potential grant sponsors or collaborators:

  • SquareOne Villages 
  • Portland State University, Center for Public Interest Design 
  • Portland State University, Homelessness Research and Action Collaborative
  • City Repair Project
  • Sustasis Foundation, Portland
  • Architecture firms that have done POD Initiative, Plywood POD Initiative, or Emerald Village / Cottage Village designs and prototypes. 


Relation to other books / web resources

Tent City Urbanism book (2014): consider this project as a sequel / complement to this book. Perhaps ossible to use same "Village Collaborative" imprint? 
-> avoid redundant material.
-> consider what are natural follow-on questions and topics, gaps, from 2014 book; and what could make new book as valuable, and complementary. 
    -> present results of pilots / hypotheses from 2014 book. 
    -> new conceptual extensions.  

SquareOne Villages' Toolbox resource, portions of which such as house plans require a $10/mo donor membership. 

CPID publications / publicity

Meyer Memorial Trust materials. 

Village Coalition site.

Housing.wiki. 

STRATEGY:  establish at start a policy of allowing content sharing, by default (except perhaps special permission images, etc) from Village Buildings to the other partners. 

STRATEGY:  set plan for, at later phase, a) converting to open licensing, e.g. CC-BY or CC-BY-NC;  b) migrating articles/materials into other places such as A Pattern Language For Growing Regions (APLFGR - Michael Mehaffy & Ward Cunningham wiki), and Wikipedia. 
--> building towards a broad, growing, public repository of public-interest housing/building materials. 

 

"Revillaging the Book" concept - co-op funding

A possible approach we're exploring is to offer part or all of the 'equity' in the project to initial donors and contributors, in proportion to their contribution towards the funding goal (say, $40,000) or project completion. Donors/contributors would be credited in the book, and offered a share of any future (post-publication) net profits, in proportion to equity stake. 

A more sophisticated version of this approach would allow for project equity to be resold under certain conditions, as in a housing cooperative. For example, equity stakes or 'tokens' can have a planned or demand-set price change over time while fundraising, incenting early contributions. Project contributors who receive equity stake for work, can potentially have a way to get income for their work.

In either of the cases above, of equity having resale value or not, there is potential for the mechanism to be viewed by the US governmentas a 'security' subject to securities regulations. Compliance would probably be untenable, so the project would need to be designed to avoid risk of this classification. 
The interest here is probably not so much in anyone making notable money, but in exploring a new model for cooperative projects that share credit, resources, and rewards, in order to be more effective and fair. See more discussion in: "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft) by Tim McCormick, January 2016.
 

Potential integration with A Pattern Language for Growing Regions 

Michael Mehaffy, a student and collaborator of Christopher Alexander, and director of the Portland-based Sustasis Foundation, has been developing a new book to extend A Pattern Language, called A Pattern Language for Growing Regions. It is planned for publication on late 2019, with a public draft now open for comments, and extensible online repository. 

"56 new patterns will address new challenges, including rapid urbanization, declining public space, urban sustainability, new technology, economic tools and strategies, geometric patterns, and more.  This draft version will be finalized later in 2019, along with an on-line repository of these and other new patterns, based on Ward Cunningham's new federated wiki.  Ward was the inventor of Wiki, and a pioneer of "pattern languages of programming" -- for which he developed the first wiki.  His new "federated wiki" has exciting new capabilities which we hope to exploit in the new repository.  Ward is a board member of Sustasis Foundation and Sustasis Press. 

"Our goal is to exploit the powerful successes of wikis, pattern languages of programming, and other outgrowths of pattern languages, returning again to the challenges of cities, buildings, and public spaces. We are collaborating with many former students and colleagues of Christopher Alexander, as well as others who have used pattern languages effectively in other domains.  We are also working with people in many countries around the world. We want to make a tool that allows people in any part of the world to use, edit, add, revise and develop their own pattern languages for their own projects, contributing at the same time to a growing resource of patterns for others to share. "


We've been discussing with Michael and have suggested, could there be a section, supplement, or supplemental volume to #APLFGR for housing affordability patterns? Mehaffy talks about wikis and pattern-languages as tools for "consensus development." In that vein, I've been thinking with this book concept about how to show varied patterns - from public housing to 'abundant' market housing - as all being possible sources of or factors in affordability. As integrable, instead of conflicting, ideas/approaches.


 Bibliography / Works Cited

  • Alexander, Christopher, and Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams.    
    ___. The Oregon Experiment, 1975.
    ___. A Pattern Language, 1977
    ___. The Timeless Way of Building, 1979
     
  • Alexander, Lisa T [2015].  "Occupying the Constitutional Right to Housing." 94 Neb. L. Rev. 245 (2015). Available at: https://scholarship.law.tamu.edu/facscholar/766.
     
  • Andersen, Michael. [2019] "Re-legalizing Fourplexes is the Unfinished Business of Tom McCall"  ["For decades, Oregon has used state law to battle economic segregation. Fair-housing experts say HB 2001 is the next step"]. Sightline.org, January 23, 2019. 
     
  • Aquilino, Marie, ed. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. (New York, NY: Metropolis Books, 2011).
    ISBN 9781935202479
    [1].
       Part 1. Architecture after disaster : 
    Learning from Aceh / Andrea Fitrianto --
    Beyond shelter in the Solomon Islands / Andrea Nield --
    News from the Teardrop Island / Sandra D'Urzo --
    From transitional to permanent shelter: invaluable partnerships in Peru / International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies --
       Part 2. What should governments do? : 
    When people are involved / Thiruppugazh Venkatachalam --
    Citizen architects in India / Rupal and Rajendra Desai --
    What about out cities?: Rebuilding Muzaffarabad / Maggie Stephenson, Sheikh Ahsan Ahmed, and Zahid Amin --
       Part 3. Urban risk and recovery : 
    Below the sill plate: New Orleans East struggles to recover / Deborah Gans with James Dart --
    Slumlifting: an informal toolbox for a new architecture / Alfredo Brillembourg and Hubert Klumpner --
    Sustainable communities: avoiding disaster in the informal city / Arlene Lusterio --
    Camouflaging disaster: 60 linear miles of local transborder urban conflict / Teddy Cruz --
    Cultural heritage and disaster mitigation: a new alliance / Rohit Jigyasu --
       Part 4. Environmental resilience : 
    Green recovery / Anita van Breda and Brittany Smith --
    The home as the world: Tamil Nadu / Jennifer E. Duyne Barenstein --
    Design as mitigation in the Himalayas / Francesca Galeazzi --
    On beauty, architecture, and crisis: the Salem Centre for Cardiac Surgery in Sudan / Raul Pantaleo --
       Part 5. Teaching as strategic action : 
    Cultivation resilience: the BaSiC Initiative / Sergio Palleroni --
    Studio 804 in Greensburg, Kansas / Don Rockhill and Jenny Kivett --
    Sustainable knowledge and internet technology / Mehran Gharaati, Kimon Onuma, and Guy Fimmers --
       Part 6. Is prevention possible? : 
    More to lose: the paradox of vulnerability / John Norton and Guillaume Chantry --
    Building peace across African frontiers / Robin Cross and Naomi Handa Williams --
    Haiti 2010: reports from the field / Marie J. Aquilino --
    Afterword : 
    Open letter to architects, engineers, and urbanists / Patrick Coulombel.
     
  • Beekman, Daniel. "Stop opening tent cities, homelessness expert tells Seattle leaders." The Seattle Times, 26 February 2016. https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/stop-opening-tent-cities-homelessness-expert-tells-seattle-leaders/.
     
  • Blanchard, Dave. [2012]. "Designing for Homelessness." [interview with Linly Bynam, Teddy Cruz, & Sergio Palleroni]. OPB Think Out Loud, October 3rd 2012. https://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/architecture-homeless/.
    MP3: https://www.opb.org/audio/download/?f=tol/segments/2012/100303.mp3.
     
  • Chapin, Ross. Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World. (2011). 
     
  • Chomei, Kamo, et al. Ten Foot Square Hut (Hojoki) and Tales of the Heike. (1972). Translated by A. L. Sadler. 
     
  • Diedrickson, Derek "Deek". Micro living: 40 innovative tiny houses equipped for full-time living, in 400 square feet or less. 2018. 
     
  • Douglas, Gordon C.C. The Help-Yourself City: Legitimacy and Inequality in DIY Urbanism. (2018). 
     
  • Hayden, Dolores. Redesigning the American Dream: Gender, Housing, and Family Life. (??)
     
  • Heben, Andrew. Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages. (2014).
     
  • ____. "2014 in Review: A Pivotal Year for Tiny House Villages." Tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2014. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2014/12/2014a-pivotal-year-for-tiny-house.html.
     
  • ____. "2015 in Review: Tiny House Villages progress as traditional housing options continue to fall short." tentcityurbanism.com, 30 December 2015. http://www.tentcityurbanism.com/2015/12/2015-in-review-tiny-house-villages.html. 
     
  • Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. "The Mobile Home, and how it came to America."  in Discovering the Vernacular Landscape (1984). 
     
  • Kahn, Lloyd. Tiny Homes: Simple Shelter (2012). 
     
  • Kahn, Lloyd and Bob Easton, eds. Shelter. (2nd edition, 2000). 
     
  • Kern, Ken. The Owner-Built Home. (Homestead Press, 1972).
     
  • Los Angeles County Homeless Initiative. "Housing Innovation Challenge." https://www.housinginnovationchallenge.com/. Accessed 11 March 2019. 
     
  • McCormick, Tim [2016]. "Cooperative Product Development" (notes / paper draft). January 2016. http://bit.ly/coop-productdev-paper.
     
  • Mitchell, Ryan. Tiny House Living: Ideas For Building and Living Well In Less than 400 Square Feet. (2014).
     
  • Monahan, Rachel [2017]. "A Developer Offers the Portland Mayor 300 Apartments at a Deep Discount—and Waits for a Reply."  [on Rob Justus / Home First Development].  Willamette Week, March 21, 2017.  https://www.wweek.com/news/city/2017/03/21/a-developer-offers-the-portland-mayor-300-apartments-at-a-deep-discount-and-waits-for-a-reply/. 
     
  • Mosher, Heather Irene, "Participatory Action Research with Dignity Village: An Action Tool for Empowerment Within a Homeless Community" (2010). Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses. Paper 36. 10.15760/etd.36.
     
  • The Oregonian Editorial Board. "The bold promise to reduce homelessness: Editorial Agenda 2015." The Oregonian, Updated Jan 09, 2019; Posted Oct 03, 2015. https://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/2015/10/the_bold_promise_to_reduce_hom.html.
         "Dignity Village and Right 2 Dream Too, meanwhile, are ghettos operating successfully by their own logic, but they provide no working model for long-term accommodation to the city's burgeoning homeless population."
     
  • Park, Eileen. [2018] "Guerrilla Development's bold plan to end homelessness." by  KOIN-TV, Oct 18, 2018. https://www.koin.com/news/local/multnomah-county/guerrilla-development-s-bold-plan-to-end-homelessness/1362079021. 
     
  • Smith, Doug [2019]. "Five winning ideas to build housing more quickly and cheaply for L.A.’s homeless community." Los Angeles Times, Feb 15, 2019. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-homeless-housing-innovation-grants-20190215-story.html. 
     
  • Tafari, Jack. "We Need a Tent City." Street Roots (Portland), October 2000. http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/06.html.
     
  • ___. "The future." Street Roots, December 2000. http://dignity.scribble.com/articles/future.html.
     
  • ___. "A brief history of the Out of the Doorways campaign, part one." Street Roots, 6 Dec 2009.
    https://news.streetroots.org/2009/12/06/brief-history-out-doorways-campaign-part-one.
     
  • Turner, John F. C. [1972a]. "Housing as a Verb." in Turner, ed. Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process (1972). 
     
  • Turner, John F. C. [1976] Housing By People: Towards Autonomy in Building Environments.1976. with Introduction by Colin Ward.
     
  • Turner, John F. C., ed [1972]. Freedom to Build: Dweller Control of the Housing Process.1972.
     
  • United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH). "Ending Homelessness for People Living in Encampments: Advancing the Dialogue." USICH.gov, August 2015. https://www.usich.gov/resources/uploads/asset_library/Ending_Homelessness_for_People_Living_in_Encampments_Aug2015.pdf.
     
  • Waldroupe, Amanda [2017]. "Pilot project in Portland to test locally funded housing vouchers." Street Roots, 23 Jun 2017. http://news.streetroots.org/2017/06/23/pilot-project-portland-test-locally-funded-housing-vouchers.
     
  • Walker, Lester. A Little House of My Own: 47 Grand Designs for 47 Tiny Houses. 2000. [? check for earlier edition]
     
  • Ward, Colin. Housing: An Anarchist Approach (1976). 
     
  • Ward, Colin. Talking Houses. (London: Freedom House, 1990). 
     
  • ___. [2002]. Cotters and Squatters: Housing's Hidden History. (Nottingham: Five Leaves, 2002).
     
  • ___, [2002b]. "The Worldwide One-night House." Open Democracy, 2002, http://www.opendemocracy.net/ecology-urbanisation/article_729.jsp [accessed 27 October 2009].
     
  • ___. [2004]. "The Hidden History of Housing." (London: History and Policy, September 2004); http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-25.html.
     
  • ___. [?] "Walter Segal: Community Architect." Walter Segal Self Build Trust, http://www.segalselfbuild.co.uk/news/waltersegalbycol.html [accessed 15 February 2010].
     
  • ___. [?] Autonomy, Solidarity, Possibility: The Colin Ward Reader. Edited by Damian F. White and Chris Wilbert. 
     
  • Wikipedia. "Dignity Village." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dignity_Village. Accessed 17 Oct 2019.
     
  • ____. "Jack Tafari." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Tafari. Accessed 17 Oct 2019. 

 

 

Acknowledgements   

Thanks for feedback from and conversations with:
Michael Andersen, Sightline Institute.
Elise Aymer, Critical Diversity Solutions - Toronto / Berkeley.
Andrew Heben - SquareOne Villages, Eugene.
Sarah Iannarone
Margarette Leite, Center for Public Interest Design
MIchael Mehaffy - Sustasis Foundation, Portland.
John McCormick, AIA, AICP (Emeritus) - Portland.
Michael Parkhurst, Meyer Memorial Trust. 
Kol Peterson - AccessoryDwellings.org, etc, Portland.

 

Authors/editor bio notes

 

To Do

- review Tent City Urbanism, and references section. 
- research Print on Demand options - ask Andrew, Steven 
- villagebuildings twitter.
- VB logo?
- VB domain registration
- VB site