YIMBY is an acronym for Yes In My Back Yard, coined in contrast to the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome, describing a point of view and various advocacy groups which support growth, new housing, new transportation infrastructure, and broad urban development generally.
- 1 History
- 2 Concepts
- 3 YIMBY organizations
- 4 Criticisms
- 5 Media Depictions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
1970s new coalition of builders, environmentalists, integrationists, consumers
"an unusual coalition of interests" now exists between social justice and environmental groups, housing producers, & priced-out consumers, observed Constance Perin in anthropological study of US land-use, "Everything In Its Place", 1977.
Suburban Action Institute
Suburban Action Institute was a pro-integration, proto-YIMBY group active on the East Coast in the early 1970s:
"As long as the costs of educating suburban children are borne by the local real property tax, a community will try to enhance its tax base by luring industry, and will try to keep out housing developments that attract families with children. A radical restructuring of the tax system for financing education is needed, both to end exclusion and to assure every child, whether born in a rich or a poor community, equal educational opportunity.
A statewide income tax for education is the remedy now advocated by the Regional Plan Association of New York, by the Lindsay administration, and even by suburban taxpayers who can no longer pay educational costs in newly developing communities."
The term 'YIMBY' appears to have first been used in the U.S. waste-management industry in the 1980s, to propose a point of view accepting the necessity of needed facilities being located somewhere -- in contrast to 'NIMBY' activism which by then was seen as a serious impediment to siting or operating facilities.
The earliest known usage of "YIMBY" was to mean "Yes in Many Back Yards." In a June 19, 1988 New York Times article, "Coping in the Age of 'Nimby,'" by William Glaberson, this was attributed to David L. Morell, "a former academic who had written about Nimby issues and who is now vice president for regulatory policy at the Environmental Systems Company, one of the leading toxic-waste disposal companies in the country":
"The company's Mr. Morell has his own acronym answer to Nimby: Yimby, or Yes, in many backyards. And in one form or another many analysts are talking about similar ways of making people understand that they must share the risks that go along with the benefits of modern life."
The earliest usage found so far for YIMBY meaning "Yes in My Backyard" is "Getting to YIMBY: Yes in My Backyard." by Elizabeth Kiser, World Wastes 35, no. 12 (December 1992): 38-41.
in Sim City (2003)
In the urban simulation computer game SimCity4, released in 2003 -- and still the most popular of all SimCity releases -- 'YIMBY' is an attribute given to some residential or commercial building which generally have a positive effect on the environment around them. In SimCity 2013, "These buildings cause a happiness wave within the area surrounding it and cause Sims to have the 'We love the new city buildings!' thought." (according to Simcity fandom site - simcity.wikia.com/wiki/YIMBY).
Urban advocacy, mid-2000s on
In the 2000s, YIMBY came be used informally to describe positive advocacy for urban development, and in 2007 the first YIMBY-named organization was formed, YIMBY Stockholm, an independent polical party network operating in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Oslo, and Uppsala
A 2005 edit on the Wikipedia 'YIMBY' page observed:
"YIMBY is an acronym for Yes In My Back Yard, in contrast and opposition to the NIMBY phenomenon. Informal YIMBY coalitions exist in San Francisco, Los Angeles and elsewhere to provide community support for affordable and market-rate housing projects over the objections of NIMBY, BANANA and bureaucratic opponents."
"Yimby is an acronym for the English phrase Yes in my backyard , which is a counter reaction to the Nimby phenomenon, Not in my backyard . The term "Yimby" is linked to urban planning, which means that one is fundamentally positive about changes in its vicinity.
"Yimby is also an independent political party network, founded in Stockholm in 2007, which advocates physical development, densification and promotion of urban environment , and occurs in, among other things, Gothenburg, Oslo, Stockholm and Uppsala. The network criticizes several of the ideas that dominated urban development, especially during the second half of the 20th century, such as the spreading of the city, car dependence and the so-called " neighborhood planning," which meant that areas were planned as individual communities, rather than as parts of the larger city. The network also criticizes parts of the environmental movement and argues that a principle of resistance to densification and expansion of the city's urban forms is blocking the problem of exploration and dispersal of the city, which requires large natural areas and complicates the ability to build efficient public transport solutions . The network has also repeatedly criticized the lack of real parks in Stockholm, while there are many impediments in the form of unused green spaces."
In the US, Nikolai Fedak in 2011 founded Newyorkyimby.com blog tracking real-estate developments. He later cited Simcity as a primary inspiration for his love of cities and development. [Rosenblum 2014].
In San Francisco by 2014 activists Amy Farah Weiss and Sonja Trauss were both separately using the title "SFYIMBY".
SFBARF, SF YIMBY, etc
In 2015 in San Francisco, Sonja Trauss formed San Francisco Bay Area Renters Federation (SFBARF) as an informal group, which led to the formation of SF YIMBY group and various affiliated organizations including YIMBY Action (a 501c4), CaRLA (a 501c3 focused on legal strategies for housing inclusion) and YIMBY political action committee). These have been among the most active and publicized YIMBY groups, but in 2016-17 YIMBY-affiliated groups arose in many other places, and a number of existing advocacy groups such as Better Boulder and A Better Cambridge affiliated themselves with the movement.
The first US YIMBY conference was held in Boulder, Colorado, in June 2016, hosted by A Better Boulder. The second was held in Oakland, California, in July 2017, hosted by East Bay Forward (now East Bay for Everyone). An international conference, YIMBYcon, was held in Helsinki, Finland in 2016 and 2017.
In earlier usage, the 'NIMBY' concept was perhaps more commonly applied to opponents of developments with some relatively well-defined, perceived nuisance threat: for example, a waste dump potentially handling hazardous materials. In the case of controversies over new housing development -- often a key concern of US YIMBY groups today -- the positions which YIMBY groups are advocating against often have a notable variety of stated or suspected motivations. For example, development resistance might be ascribed to protecting or raising home values, environmental protection, concerns for overloading infrastructure or schools, transportation or traffic issues, quality of life issues, a bargaining strategy to win concessions or community-group funding or tax revenues from developer, opposing gentrification, supporting gentrification, preventing greater diversity of residents, preserving greater diversity of residents, and so on.
[Contrariwise, one might perhaps also say, development support might be ascribed to a notable variety of motivations.. developer profit, or reducing developer profit (i.e. expand development until marginal profitability is zero, or even push to overbuild and flood the market and lose money). Or opening and revitalizing the city, or invading and appropriating the city. and so on].
In 2017, USC planning professor Dr. Lisa Schweitzer conducted a series of interviews with Los Angeles anti-displacement activists and explored their understanding of YIMBY ideas:
"One of my points in yesterday’s discussion was, simply, that the rhetorical or persuasive burden on YIMBY advocates is higher than it is on the NIMBY component (which is different than the anti-displacement side, btw). I stand by that statement for the simple reason that NIMBY have policy inertia on their side. They have existing zoning laws on their side; they have federal home ownership favoritism on their side. They have close to 70 years of zoning being mainstream practice, at least in the US. It’s not just or right, necessarily; it’s that any form of progressive reform always has to break free of the event horizon of the status quo. Those who want the status quo only have to maintain it.
"Given that progressive reforms have happened and do happen, it’s not impossible. It just requires heavy lifting, and some of that heavy lifting is tediously having to repeat the same points on the policy agenda to anybody who doesn’t run away quickly enough.
"I’ve been spending my summer working on interviews with anti-displacement advocates (if you are reading this, and I haven’t pestered you, and you have something you want to say, hit me up), and it’s been enlightening. It caused me to back up and examine what premises you have to accept in order to arrive at a yes for YIMBY if you, yourself, don’t have a preference for urbanism. And it’s a pretty long persuasive journey.
a) that zoning contributes to sprawl (probably the least contentious);
b) that sprawl’s environmental and social consequences are sufficiently important to require that existing neighborhoods, which people may enjoy as they currently are, allow infill, even at the risk of crowding and other problems that strangers bring, in order to prevent the consequences of more building on the suburban fringe;
c) that infill development actually can fix affordability or the other problems wrought by exclusion/zoning/sprawl rather than just displacing and potentially harming existing residents; that is, it is possible to accommodate as many new people (or more) in existing neighborhoods, closer to the city center, as it would have been to put them in new suburban developments on the fringe to address housing demand in urbanizing metro areas;
d) that doing so will result in more good than harm overall; and for various subgroups at any given time,
e) that doing so will result in more good than harm *to them personally* overall.
Narefsky, Karen. "What’s In My Backyard? YIMBYs look to the free market to solve the housing crisis. But the profit motive is what caused the affordability crunch in the first place." Jacobin, 08.08.2017.
Stone, Casie. "The YIMBYs push unaffordable housing." ("Casie Stone analyzes the platform put forward by a range of 'Yes In My Backyard' organizations--whose arguments fit nicely with the interests of real estate developers."). Socialist Worker, July 20, 2017.
Becky O'Malley. "Why is a YIMBY like Sebastian Gorka?" Berkeley Daily Planet, Friday July 14, 2017.
Joelalemon Street Tunnel (@exadyto) on Twitter 31 Dec 2017.
"Worth watching on Netflix: the Kate Mulgrew character in the three part arc that ends season 4 of Cheers (1986) sounds like a proto-YIMBY."
- CAVE People ("Citizens Against Virtually Everything).
- NIMBY concept
- SFBARF (SF Bay Area Renters Federation
- Alviani, Carl. "The unexpected solution to America’s affordable housing crunch." Quartz, February 08, 2017. Reasonable overview of the YIMBY movement in US.
- Bosetti, Nicolas, and Sam Sims. "STOPPED: Why People Oppose New Residential Developments in Their Back Yard." Centre for London, 20 July 2016. An excellent study by Centre for London examined people's reasons for resisting new housing development.
- Dougherty, Conor. "California Today: A Spreading ‘Yimby’ Movement." New York Times, JULY 14, 2017
- Eaton, George. “What is a yimby? Meet the campaigners hoping to ease the housing crisis.” New Statesman, 13 Nov 2017. https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2017/11/what-yimby-meet-campaigners-hoping-ease-housing-crisis.
- Hahn, Jonathan. "Pro-Housing Urban Millennials Say 'Yes In My Backyard.'" Sierra Magazine (The Sierra Club), AUG 23 2017.
- Jacobus, Rick. “We Are All NIMBYs…Sometimes.” Shelterforce, September 12, 2017.
- McManus, John. “Could YIMBY be the New NIMBY” Builder, 10 Oct 2017.
Young adults' urgent need for housing they can afford, and their rising influence in shaping municipal policy may swing the pendulum.
- Narefsky, Karen. "What’s In My Backyard? YIMBYs look to the free market to solve the housing crisis. But the profit motive is what caused the affordability crunch in the first place." Jacobin, 08.08.2017.
- Politico. "A New Solution For Rents That Are Too Damn High: 'Sonja Trauss, Co-founder, The YIMBY Party." in "50 Ideas that are blowing up politics, and the people behind them" issue, 2017. https://www.politico.com/interactives/2017/politico50/sonja-trauss/.
- Perin, Constance (1977). Everything In Its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America. Princeton University Press, 1977.
- Rosenblum, Constance. "Sure, Build It in My Backyard." [profile of New York YIMBY founder Nikolai Fedak]. April 4, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/06/realestate/sure-build-it-in-my-backyard.html.
- Schleicher, David. "City Unplanning." A thorough review of US zoning's legal underpinnings, the economic dynamics produced, and some ways to counteract indesirable outcomes. http://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/1162_m41e7ifa.pdf
- Schweitzer, Lisa. "Getting to Yes with YIMBY in LA, or my summer interviews." Lisaschweitzer.com, 19 July 2017.
- Schweitzer, Lisa. “#YIMBY and communitarians.” LisaSchweitzer.com, 1 Sept 2016. https://lisaschweitzer.com/2016/09/01/yimby-and-communitarians/amp/.
- Stahl, Kenneth. "'Yes in My Backyard': Can a New Pro-Housing Movement Overcome the Power of NIMBYs?" forthcoming 2018 in Zoning & Planning Law Report. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3087508.
- Stone, Casie. "The YIMBYs push unaffordable housing." ("Casie Stone analyzes the platform put forward by a range of 'Yes In My Backyard' organizations--whose arguments fit nicely with the interests of real estate developers."). Socialist Worker, July 20, 2017
- Tran, Kim. "'My Neighbors Would Look at Me Like an Alien’: Women of Gentrification." ReWire News, Oct 24, 2017.