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== Rosenthal (2014) study ==
Substantial evidence for filtering effects was presented in (Stuart Rosenthal, 2014), "Are Private Markets and Filtering a Viable Source of Low-Income Housing? Estimates from a 'Repeat Income' Model." in ''American Economic Review. ''[https://drive.google.com/open?id=1tDFiyW5rVEUtx9rceWZjTDJPODX3NeEO.
https://drive.google.com/open?id=1tDFiyW5rVEUtx9rceWZjTDJPODX3NeEO. ]'' ''He dmonstrated that filtering occurs widely, although significantly less so in recent decades in high-cost, supply-constrained areas such as the Bay Area and Boston.
Comment from Dan Immergluck, [https://twitter.com/DanImmergluck/status/948317432548077568 2 January 2017]:<br/> "I read Rosenthal piece as showing that incomes decline annually 7 times as fast as rents -->rent-to-income ratio increasing over time. And given high rents of new units being produced, I am not sure how this can be viewed as providing "affordable housing" to lower-income folks."
*Ratcliff, Richard U. ''Urban Land Economics ''(1949). <br/>
*Rosenthal, Stuart S. . "Are Private Markets and Filtering a Viable Source of Low-Income Housing? Estimates from a 'Repeat Income' Model." ''American Economic Review'', 104(2): 687-706 (February 2014). DOI: 10.1257/aer.104.2.687. Preprint (2013): [http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/rosenthal/recent%20papers/Is_Filtering_a_Viable_Source_of_Low-Income_Housing_%206_18_13.pdf http://faculty.maxwell.syr.edu/rosenthal/recent%20papers/Is_Filtering_a_Viable_Source_of_Low-Income_Housing_%206_18_13.pdf].
*Zuk, Miriam, and Karen Chapple. [http://www.urbandisplacement.org/sites/default/files/images/udp_research_brief_052316.pdf. "Housing Production, Filtering and Displacement: Untangling the Relationships."] Berkeley Institute of Government Studies - Research Brief, May 2016.<br/> [http://www.urbandisplacement.org/sites/default/files/images/udp_research_brief_052316.pdf http://www.urbandisplacement.org/sites/default/files/images/udp_research_brief_052316.pdf].