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"Homelessness is the condition of people without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment. People who are homeless are most often unable to acquire and maintain regular, safe, secure and adequate housing.[1] The legal definition of homeless varies from country to country, or among different jurisdictions in the same country or region.[2] The term homelessmay also include people whose primary night-time residence is in a homeless shelter, a domestic violence shelter, long-term residence in a motel, a vehicle, squattingcardboard boxes, a tent citytarpaulinsshanty town structures made of discarded building materials or other ad hoc housing situations.  United States government homeless enumeration studies also include people who sleep in a public or private place not designed for use as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings."
-- Wikipedia: "Homelessness"


Housing First

from December, 2016 literature review and commentary [Kertesz et al 2016]: 

"Advocates for ending homelessness have increasingly turned to a financial argument, claiming that permanent supportive housing will deliver net cost savings to society." "We believe the cost-savings argument is problematic and that it would be better to reframe the discussion to focus primarily on the best way to meet this population’s needs." "Higher-quality randomized, controlled trials...haven’t demonstrated net cost savings." "Staking the future of Housing First on the expectation that it will save money could undermine efforts to deliver an effective intervention to the majority of the population it’s intended to serve."




  • Anderson, Nels. The Hobo.
  • Blau, Joel. The Visible Poor: Homelessness in the United States.
  • Desmond, Matthew. Evicted. 
  • Feldman, Leonard C. Citizens without Shelter: Homelessness, Democracy, and Political Exclusion. (Cornell University Press, 2006). 
  • Heben, Andrew. Tent City Urbanism: From Self-Organized Camps to Tiny House Villages.
  • Gowan, Teresa. Hobos, Hustlers, and Backsliders: Homeless in San Francisco. (University of Minnesota Press, 2010). 
  • Hailey, Charlie. Camps: A Guide to 21st-Century Space. (MIT Press, 2009).
  • ____ . Campsite: Architectures of Duration and Place. 2008.
  • Hopper, Kim. Reckoning With Homelessness. (Cornell University Press, 2002).   
  • Katz. The Undeserving Poor (1st edition 1989). 
  • Kerouac, Jack. "The Hobo in America", in Lonesome Traveller
  • Kusmer, Kenneth L.. Down and Out, on the Road: The Homeless in American History. Oxford University Press, 2001.  
  • London, Jack. The Road (1903). 
  • Okin, Robert L. Silent Voices: People with Mental Disorders on the Street.
  • Piven, Francis. Regulating the Poor.
  • Quigley, John M, Stephen Raphael, and Eugene Smolensky. "Homelessness in California." Public Policy Institute of California, 2001. http://www.ppic.org/publication/homelessness-in-california/. 
  • Rossi, Peter R. Down and Out in America. 1993.
  • Willse, Craig. The Value of Homelessness: Managing Surplus Life in the United States. (University of Minnesota Press, 2015). 


Articles / studies