Difference between revisions of "Zoning"

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Around the turn of the 20th century, a rapid urbanization process and influx of immigrants transformed the country. Middle and upper-classes consequently encountered much greater diversity than they had before making the intrusion of unwanted people into their neighborhoods appear more conceivable. As a result, many cities began implementing the first exclusionary zoning policies. In 1908, Los Angeles adopted the first citywide zoning ordinance protecting residential areas from the entrance of these undesirable community elements. Many of these early regulations directly darred racial and ethnic minorities from community residence, until explicit racial zoning was declared unconstitutional in 1917.
 
Around the turn of the 20th century, a rapid urbanization process and influx of immigrants transformed the country. Middle and upper-classes consequently encountered much greater diversity than they had before making the intrusion of unwanted people into their neighborhoods appear more conceivable. As a result, many cities began implementing the first exclusionary zoning policies. In 1908, Los Angeles adopted the first citywide zoning ordinance protecting residential areas from the entrance of these undesirable community elements. Many of these early regulations directly darred racial and ethnic minorities from community residence, until explicit racial zoning was declared unconstitutional in 1917.
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while NYC 1916 zoning law is arguably 1st 'comprehensive' code, there's a long prior US history: segregation of land uses in colonial plans/laws eg 1632 Cambridge ordinance; CA laws to exclude Chinese laundries - SF 1884, Modesto (w/explicit zones) 1885.. https://twitter.com/marketurbanism/status/985735374185132034?s=21
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1904 1st LA zoning (Residential District Ordinance) defined a main residential zone, excluded laundries & related businesses, ie Chinese. 
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 +
https://twitter.com/YIMBYwiki/status/952006801532190725?s=20
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 +
 
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1908 LA laws defined Residential & Industrial Districts  for much of the city, and specified permitted uses.
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 +
https://www.kcet.org/history-society/the-roots-of-sprawl-why-we-dont-live-where-we-work.
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see: The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and ...
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By Marc A. Weiss
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1904 Los Angeles ordinance<br/> [http://recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts(July%2025%201904).pdf http://recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts%28July%2025%201904%29.pdf]
 
1904 Los Angeles ordinance<br/> [http://recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts(July%2025%201904).pdf http://recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts%28July%2025%201904%29.pdf]
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*Bertolet, Dan.[http://www.sightline.org/2016/04/20/how-exclusionary-zoning-robs-our-cities-of-their-best-qualities/ "Exclusionary Zoning Robs Our Cities of Their Best Qualities."]&nbsp;Sightline.org, 2016-04-20.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Bertolet, Dan.[http://www.sightline.org/2016/04/20/how-exclusionary-zoning-robs-our-cities-of-their-best-qualities/ "Exclusionary Zoning Robs Our Cities of Their Best Qualities."]&nbsp;Sightline.org, 2016-04-20.<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Erickson, Amanda. "[https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/ The Birth of Zoning Codes, a History]."&nbsp;''Citylab, ''19 Jun 2012.&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/ https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Erickson, Amanda. "[https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/ The Birth of Zoning Codes, a History]."&nbsp;''Citylab, ''19 Jun 2012.&nbsp;<br/> [https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/ https://www.citylab.com/equity/2012/06/birth-zoning-codes-history/2275/].<br/> &nbsp;  
*Freund, Ernst&nbsp;(1929). “[https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11741&context=journal_articles Some Inadequately Discussed Problems of the Law of City Planning and Zoning.]” Illinois Law Review, June 1929.&nbsp;https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11741&context=journal_articles.<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Freund, Ernst&nbsp;(1929). “[https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11741&context=journal_articles Some Inadequately Discussed Problems of the Law of City Planning and Zoning.]” Illinois Law Review, June 1929.&nbsp;[https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11741&context=journal_articles https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=11741&context=journal_articles].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Furth, Salim. “[https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/ The Two-Board Knot: Zoning, Schools, and Inequality.]” &nbsp;American Affairs Journal, Winter 2017.<br/> [https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/ https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Furth, Salim. “[https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/ The Two-Board Knot: Zoning, Schools, and Inequality.]” &nbsp;American Affairs Journal, Winter 2017.<br/> [https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/ https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/11/two-board-knot-zoning-schools-inequality/.&nbsp;]<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaeser, Edward. "[https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/ Reforming land use regulations]." Brookings Institute,&nbsp;April 24, 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/ https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaeser, Edward. "[https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/ Reforming land use regulations]." Brookings Institute,&nbsp;April 24, 2017.&nbsp;[https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/ https://www.brookings.edu/research/reforming-land-use-regulations/].<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Fischel, William A. (2013).&nbsp;"Neighborhood Conservation Districts: The New Belt and Suspenders of Municipal Zoning."&nbsp;78 Brook. L. Rev. (2013).<br/> [http://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/blr/vol78/iss2/17 http://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/blr/vol78/iss2/17].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Fischel, William A. (2013).&nbsp;"Neighborhood Conservation Districts: The New Belt and Suspenders of Municipal Zoning."&nbsp;78 Brook. L. Rev. (2013).<br/> [http://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/blr/vol78/iss2/17 http://brooklynworks.brooklaw.edu/blr/vol78/iss2/17].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaeser, Edward L, Joseph Gyourko and Raven Saks. "Why is Manhattan So Expensive? Regulation and the Rise in Housing Prices."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Glaeser, Edward L, Joseph Gyourko and Raven Saks. "Why is Manhattan So Expensive? Regulation and the Rise in Housing Prices."&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
*Glaeser, Edward L, and Bryce A. Ward. "[https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf The causes and consequences of land use regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston.]" Journal of Urban Economics 65 (2009) 265–278. &nbsp;DOI:10.1016/j.jue.2008.06.003.<br/> PDF from author:&nbsp;[https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
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*Glaeser, Edward L, and Bryce A. Ward. "[https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf The causes and consequences of land use regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston.]" Journal of Urban Economics 65 [[tel:(2009)_265–278|(2009) 265–278]]. &nbsp;DOI:10.1016/j.jue.2008.06.003.<br/> PDF from author:&nbsp;[https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/the_causes_and_consequences_of_land_use_regulation_evidence_from_greater_boston_2009.pdf].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Hall, Peter. "[https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk The Containment of Urban England]." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 140, No. 3 (Oct., 1974), pp. 386-408.&nbsp;[http://www.jstor.org/stable/1796533. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1796533.&nbsp;][article summary of Hall's 1973 book of the same name].&nbsp;&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Hall, Peter. "[https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk The Containment of Urban England]." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 140, No. 3 (Oct., 1974), pp. 386-408.&nbsp;[http://www.jstor.org/stable/1796533. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1796533.&nbsp;][article summary of Hall's 1973 book of the same name].&nbsp;&nbsp;<br/> [https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_E90AYG2sPDelVqeFBVVDFobVk].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Hills, Roderick M. Hills, and&nbsp;David Schleicher.&nbsp;"[https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/ Planning an Affordable City.]" 101 Iowa Law Review&nbsp;91 (2015).<br/> [https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/ https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/].<br/> <br/> "The solution to this housing crisis is economically simple but politically difficult. As a matter of economic rationality, local governments should deregulate their housing markets to allow an increased housing supply to meet a rising demand for housing. As a political matter, however, incumbent residents who already own housing vociferously and effectively protest against the reduction of zoning restrictions."<br/> <br/> How, then, to free up urban land markets from the stranglehold of zoning driven by NIMBY (not-in-my-back-yard) neighbors? We argue, paradoxically, that the solution to excessive zoning is centralized, comprehensive, and binding land-use planning.<br/> <br/> We argue in Part III.A that binding, comprehensive plans allow legislators to create “contracts” across electoral districts that are otherwise impossible when zoning proceeds through piecemeal lot-by-lot bargaining."&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/index.php?title=Comprehensive_plan&action=edit&redlink=1 Comprehensive plan].&nbsp;<br/> <br/> "We argue in Part III.B that parcel-by-parcel bargaining imposes high information costs on outside investors, thereby reducing the market for investment in new housing to a handful of local insiders with incentives to constrain supply."<br/> <br/> "Prescriptions below in Part IV, including the idea that mayors and city planning departments ought to regularly redraw the citywide zoning map to comprehend all pending development proposals, a process that would look something like an annual budgeting process. [see&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/wiki/Zoning_budget Zoning budget]&nbsp;-Yimbywiki].&nbsp;Other proposals include fixed prices, defined ex ante in the zoning ordinance, for additional building rights [see&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/wiki/Transfer_of_development_rights Transfer of development rights]&nbsp;-Yimbywiki]&nbsp;and prohibitions on any downzoning until citywide housing goals, defined with hard figures like vacancy rates or building permits issued, are met."&nbsp;&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Hills, Roderick M. Hills, and&nbsp;David Schleicher.&nbsp;"[https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/ Planning an Affordable City.]" 101 Iowa Law Review&nbsp;91 (2015).<br/> [https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/ https://ilr.law.uiowa.edu/print/volume-101-issue-1/planning-an-affordable-city/].<br/> <br/> "The solution to this housing crisis is economically simple but politically difficult. As a matter of economic rationality, local governments should deregulate their housing markets to allow an increased housing supply to meet a rising demand for housing. As a political matter, however, incumbent residents who already own housing vociferously and effectively protest against the reduction of zoning restrictions."<br/> <br/> How, then, to free up urban land markets from the stranglehold of zoning driven by NIMBY (not-in-my-back-yard) neighbors? We argue, paradoxically, that the solution to excessive zoning is centralized, comprehensive, and binding land-use planning.<br/> <br/> We argue in Part III.A that binding, comprehensive plans allow legislators to create “contracts” across electoral districts that are otherwise impossible when zoning proceeds through piecemeal lot-by-lot bargaining."&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/index.php?title=Comprehensive_plan&action=edit&redlink=1 Comprehensive plan].&nbsp;<br/> <br/> "We argue in Part III.B that parcel-by-parcel bargaining imposes high information costs on outside investors, thereby reducing the market for investment in new housing to a handful of local insiders with incentives to constrain supply."<br/> <br/> "Prescriptions below in Part IV, including the idea that mayors and city planning departments ought to regularly redraw the citywide zoning map to comprehend all pending development proposals, a process that would look something like an annual budgeting process. [see&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/wiki/Zoning_budget Zoning budget]&nbsp;-Yimbywiki].&nbsp;Other proposals include fixed prices, defined ex ante in the zoning ordinance, for additional building rights [see&nbsp;[http://www.yimby.wiki/wiki/Transfer_of_development_rights Transfer of development rights]&nbsp;-Yimbywiki]&nbsp;and prohibitions on any downzoning until citywide housing goals, defined with hard figures like vacancy rates or building permits issued, are met."&nbsp;&nbsp;<br/> &nbsp;  
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**''Progress and Poverty.&nbsp;''Modernized edition by Bob Drake, 2006.&nbsp;[http://www.henrygeorge.org/pintro.htm http://www.henrygeorge.org/pintro.htm].<br/> &nbsp;  
 
**''Progress and Poverty.&nbsp;''Modernized edition by Bob Drake, 2006.&nbsp;[http://www.henrygeorge.org/pintro.htm http://www.henrygeorge.org/pintro.htm].<br/> &nbsp;  
  
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*Hall, Peter.&nbsp;''Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century''&nbsp;(2002).<br/> &nbsp;  
 
*Hall, Peter.&nbsp;''Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century''&nbsp;(2002).<br/> &nbsp;  

Latest revision as of 03:52, 16 April 2018

Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited. The type of zone determines whether planning permission for a given development is granted. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development.

 

Ancient forms of zoning

China, Mesopotamia, etc. 

See: Hirt, Sonia. Zoned in the USA: The Origins and Implications of American Land-Use Regulation (Cornell University Press, 2014).

 

United States

Around the turn of the 20th century, a rapid urbanization process and influx of immigrants transformed the country. Middle and upper-classes consequently encountered much greater diversity than they had before making the intrusion of unwanted people into their neighborhoods appear more conceivable. As a result, many cities began implementing the first exclusionary zoning policies. In 1908, Los Angeles adopted the first citywide zoning ordinance protecting residential areas from the entrance of these undesirable community elements. Many of these early regulations directly darred racial and ethnic minorities from community residence, until explicit racial zoning was declared unconstitutional in 1917.

while NYC 1916 zoning law is arguably 1st 'comprehensive' code, there's a long prior US history: segregation of land uses in colonial plans/laws eg 1632 Cambridge ordinance; CA laws to exclude Chinese laundries - SF 1884, Modesto (w/explicit zones) 1885.. https://twitter.com/marketurbanism/status/985735374185132034?s=21

 

1904 1st LA zoning (Residential District Ordinance) defined a main residential zone, excluded laundries & related businesses, ie Chinese. 

https://twitter.com/YIMBYwiki/status/952006801532190725?s=20

 

1908 LA laws defined Residential & Industrial Districts  for much of the city, and specified permitted uses.

https://www.kcet.org/history-society/the-roots-of-sprawl-why-we-dont-live-where-we-work.

 

see: The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and ...

By Marc A. Weiss

 

1904 Los Angeles ordinance
http://recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts%28July%2025%201904%29.pdf

1908 Los Angeles "Residence Districts" ordinance

1908 Los Angeles "Industrial Districts" ordinance

1916 New York City comprehensive zoning ordinance

The United States federal government finally addressed the issue with the enactment of the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act of 1922. This legislation established a model framework for zoning ordinances, which states could adopt or adapt to delegate land-use power to local authorities for the protection of "public safety, health, morals and welfare."

The Supreme Court considered zoning's constitutionality in the 1926 landmark case of Village of Euclid, Ohio v. Ambler Realty Co.. The court ultimately condoned zoning as an acceptable means of community regulation. Following this verdict, the number of municipalities with zoning legislation multiplied from 368 in 1925 to over 1,000 in 1930.

Also in 1926, as part of a national program to promote adoption of zoning ordinances, the U.S. Advisory Committee on Zoning, appointed by Secretary Hebert Hoover, release a pamphlet: "A Zoning Primer."  see [United States 1926]. 
Committee members: 

  • CHARLES B. BALL Secretary Treasurer, City Planning Division, Sanitary Engineer. American Society of Civil Engineers. 
  • EDWARD M. BASSETT Counsel, Zoning Committee of New York. Lawyer. 
  • ALFRED BETTMAN Director, National Conference on City Planning.  Lawyer. 
  • IRVING B. HIETT Ex-President, National Association of Real Realtor. Estate Boards. 
  • JOHN IHLDER Manager, Civic Development Department of the Housing Consultant. Chamber of Commerce of the United States. 
  • MORRIS KNOWLES From the Chamber of Commerce of the United Consulting Engineer. States; Chairman, City Planning Division, American Society of Civil Engineers. 
  • J. HORACE McFARLAND Ex-President, The American Civic Association. Master Printer and Civic Investigator. 
  • FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED Ex-President, The American Society of Landscape Architects; Ex-President, American City Planning Institute. 
  • LAWRENCE VEILLER Secretary and Director, The National Housing Housing Expert. Association. 
  • JOHN M. GRIES Chief, Division of Building and Housing, Bureau of Standards 
  • Department of Commerce 

 

 

References

[see also: Reading listLand Use, Zoning, Planning section

 

Articles


Peer-reviewed research 

Books


 

  • Hall, Peter. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century (2002).
     
  • Hirt, Sonia. Zoned in the USA: The Origins and Implications of American Land-Use Regulation (Cornell University Press, 2014).
     
  • Levy, John M. Contemporary Urban Planning (9th Edition, 2010).
     
  • Marcuse, Peter, and David Madden. In Defense of Housing: The Politics of Crisis. 2016. https://www.amazon.com/Defense-Housing-Politics-Crisis/dp/1784783544. 
     
  • McHarg, Ian L. Design With Nature (1969). 
    "pioneered the concept of ecological planning...continues to be one of the most widely celebrated books on landscape architecture and land-use planning." -Wikipedia.
     
  • Ross, Benjamin. Dead End: Suburban Sprawl and the Rebirth of American Urbanism. (Oxford University Press, 2014). Amazon
     
  • Rothstein, Richard. The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America. 2017.
     
  • Ryan-Collins, Josh,‎ Toby Lloyd,‎ Laurie Macfarlane. Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing. 2017.
     
  • Toll, Seymour. Zoned American (1969). Outstanding legal/cultural study of the origins and development of US zoning practices. PDF full text (60MB). 
     

Resource Guides


Weiss, Marc. The Rise of the Community Builders