Theories of urban planning
"Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, definitions, behavioral relationships, and assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, and the humanist or phenomenological approach."
Whittmore, Andrew (2015).
Planning Theory course syllabus from Prof. Scott Campbell, 2016
UP540 Planning Theory (Fall 2016)
Prof. Scott D. Campbell
College of Architecture and Urban Planning
University Of Michigan
1. Leitmotifs in Planning Theory (the shift from the rural to the urban; the meaning and function of cities; the separation of space and community; the persistent economic advantage of cities)
Simmel, Georg. "The Metropolis and Mental Life," in The Sociology of Georg Simmel, translated by Kurt H. Wolff Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950, pp. 409-424.
Mumford, Lewis, ‘What Is a City?’
Webber, Melvin ‘The Post-City Age’
Glaeser, Edward L. "Why Economists Still Like Cities." City Journal, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996, pp. 70-77.
Gimein, Mark. 2016. Why the High-Cost of Big City Living is Bad for Everyone," The New Yorker, August 25. [link] [also in Canvas]
Lehmann, Nicholas, "Get out of Town: Has the Celebration of Cities Gone to Far?" The New Yorker, Jun 27, 2011
Louis Wirth, "Urbanism as a Way of Life."
2. Leitmotifs in Planning Theory: climate and livable cities; religion and the city; can cities be "solved"?
Arsenault, Raymond. 1984. "The End of the Long Hot Summer: The Air Conditioner and Southern Culture." The Journal of Southern History 50 (4):597-628.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2015. "The Siege of Miami." The New Yorker, Dec. 21.
Kotkin, Joel. 2005. "The Urban Future." In LeGates, Richard and Frederic Stout, eds. 2007. The City Reader (4th edition). Routledge.
Lehrer, Jonah, 2010, A Physicist Solves the City (The New York Times).pdf
Bettencourt and West, A unified theory of urban living, Nature
Rittel, Horst W.J., and Melvin M. Webber. 1973. Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Sciences 4:155-169.
3. The City in Film
Possible films shown in class (excerpts):
The City (1939; 32 minutes; Commentary: Lewis Mumford; music: Aaron Copeland; American Institute of Planners/Civic Films, Inc.). link.
Charley in New Town (1948, 8 minutes; “COI Presents” / “Central Office of Information”, UK) link, more info
The Dynamic American City (1956, 28 minutes; US Chamber of Commerce) link + link (in two parts)
Give yourself the Green Light (1954, 24 minutes; General Motors Corp./Handy Jam Corp.) link
House in the Middle, The (1954, 12 minutes; National Paint, Varnish and Lacquer Association; Sponsor: National Clean Up-Paint Up-Fix Up Bureau. Produced with the cooperation of the Federal Civil Defense Administration.) link
The Fifth Element (1997) [info from IMDB]
Blade Runner (1982) [info from IMDB]
Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House
Back to the Future II
Boyz n the Hood
Do the Right Thing
City of God
The Truman Show
Run Lola Run
Lost in Translation
City of Hope
4. The Garden City as the Marriage of Town and Country (examples: Letchworth, Welwyn, Radburn)
first, read about the garden city in Ebenezer Howard's own words (originally published in 1898 as To-Morrow: a peaceful path to real reform, republished in 1902 as Garden Cities of To-Morrow).
no need to read the entire book -- though short -- but do read enough to get a sense of both the goals and the specific features of Garden Cities. (e.g., these sections are a good start: Introduction, I-II, XII-XIII.)
the 1902 edition (London, S. Sonnenschein & co., ltd.): HathiTrust link; or at archive.org. Also try google books link.
or the 1965 MIT Press edition. [google book link]
see also an excerpt at at John Rep's Cornell site.
second, read these interpretations/critiques of Howard:, I-II
Hall, Peter. 2002. Cities of Tomorrow. (Chs. 1-4)
Ruth Eckdish Knack, "Garden Cities"
Garvin, Alexander. 1998. Are Garden Cities Still Relevant? In Revolutionary Ideas in Planning?Proceedings of the 1988 National Planning Conference. Boston: AICP Press.
Readings in Planning Theory, 1st edition (1996)
Campbell, Scott, and Susan S. Fainstein, editors.
- 1. Introduction: The Structure and Debates of Planning Theory / Scott Campbell and Susan S. Fainstein
- 2. Urban Utopias: Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier / Robert Fishman
- 3. The Glory, Destruction, and Meaning of the City Beautiful Movement / William H. Wilson
- 4. The Death and Life of Great American Cities / Jane Jacobs
- 5. The Neutral City / Richard Sennett
- 6. Arguments for and Against Planning / Richard E. Klosterman
- 7. Planning the Capitalist City / Richard E. Foglesong
- 8. On Planning the Ideology of Planning / David Harvey
- 9. Can Selfishness Save the Environment? / Matt Ridley and Bobbi S. Low
- 10. Between Modernity and Postmodernity: The Ambiguous Position of U. S. Planning / Robert A. Beauregard
- 11. Planning Through Debate: The Communicative Turn in Planning Theory / Patsy Healey.
- 12. City Planning and Political Values: An Updated View / Susan S. Fainstein and Norman Fainstein
- 13. The Science of "Muddling Through" / Charles E. Lindblom
- 14. Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning / Paul Davidoff
- 15. A Public Planning Perspective on Strategic Planning / Jerome L. Kaufman and Harvey M. Jacobs
- 16. A Retrospective View of Equity Planning: Cleveland, 1969-1979 / Norman Krumholz
- 17. What Local Economic Developers Actually Do: Location Quotients versus Press Releases / John M. Levy
- 18. London's Motorways / Peter Hall
- 19. Coalition-building by a Regional Agency: Austin Tobin and the Port of New York Authority / Jameson W. Doig
- 20. Feminist Thoughts on the Theory and Practice of Planning / Marsha Ritzdorf
- 21. Knowing Women/Planning Theory / Helen Liggett
- 22. Planning in a Different Voice / Susan S. Fainstein.
- 23. Some Thoughts About Difference and Pluralism / Beth Moore Milroy
- 24. Feminist and Planning Theories: The Epistemological Connection / John Friedmann
- 25. Feminist Theory and Planning Theory: The Epistemological Linkages / Leonie Sandercock and Ann Forsyth
- 26. APA's Ethical Principles Include Simplistic Planning Theories / William H. Lucy
- 27. Risk Assessment and Environmental Crisis: Toward an Integration of Science and Participation / Frank Fischer
- 28. Learning from Practice Stories: The Priority of Practical Judgment / John Forester.
Readings in Planning Theory, 2nd edition (2003)
available 11/3/18 Powells $14.95
- Introduction. The Structure and Debates of Planning Theory / Scott Campbell and Susan S. Fainstein
- Part I. Foundations of Twentieth-Century Planning
- 1. Urban Utopias: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier / Robert Fishman
- 2. The Death and Life of Great American Cities / Jane Jacobs
- 3. Toward a Non-Euclidian Mode of Planning / John Friedmann
- Part II. Planning: Justifications and Critiques
- 4. Arguments For and Against Planning / Richard Klosterman
- 5. Planning the Capitalist City / Richard E. Foglesong
- 6. Between Modernity and Postmodernity: The Ambiguous Position of U.S. Planning / Robert A. Beauregard
- 7. Authoritarian High Modernism / James C. Scott
- 8. Making Space: Planning as a Mode of Thought / David C. Perry.
- Part III. Planning Types
- 9. New Directions in Planning Theory / Susan S. Fainstein
- 10. The Science of "Muddling Through" / Charles E. Lindblom
- 11. Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning / Paul Davidoff
- 12. Equitable Approaches to Local Economic Development / Norman Krumholz
- 13. The Communicative Turn in Planning Theory and its Implications for Spatial Strategy Formation / Patsy Healey
- Part IV. Planning in Action: Successes, Failures, and Strategies
- 14. What Local Economic Developers Actually Do: Location Quotients versus Press Releases / John M. Levy
- 15. Community and Consensus: Reality and Fantasy in Planning / Howell S. Baum
- 16. Popular Planning: Coin Street, London: Tim Brindley, Yvonne Rydin, and Gerry Stoker
- Part V. Race, Gender, and City Planning
- 18. City Life and Difference / Iris Marion Young
- 19. Educating Planners: Unified Diversity for Social Action / June Manning Thomas
- 20. Nurturing: Home, Mom, and Apple Pie / Dolores Hayden
- 21. Towards Cosmopolis: Utopia as Construction Site / Leonie Sandercock
- Part VI. Ethics, the Environment, and Conflicting Priorities
- 22. APA's Ethical Principles Include Simplistic Planning Theories / William H. Lucy
- 23. Risk Assessment and Environmental Crisis: Toward an Integration of Science and Participation / Frank Fischer
- 24. Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development / Scott Campbell.
Readings in Planning Theory, 3nd edition (2011)
Susan S. Fainstein and Scott Campbell, editors.
- Introduction: The Structure and Debates of Planning Theory.
- I. Foundations of 20th Century Planning Theory.
- Section Introduction.
- 1. Robert Fishman, Urban Utopias: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier.
- 2. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities.
- 3. John Friedmann, The Good City: In Defense of Utopian Thinking.
- II. Planning: Justifications and Critiques. Section Introduction.
- 4. Heather Campbell and Robert Marshall, Utilitarianism's Bad Breath? A Re-evalution of the Public Interest Justification for Planning.
- 5. Richard E. Foglesong, Planning the Capitalist City.
- 6. Leonie Sandercock, Mongrel Cities.
- 7. James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed.
- 8. Tim Love, Urban design after Battery Park City.
- III. Planning Types/Normative frameworks. Section Introduction.
- 9. Susan S. Fainstein, Planning Theory and the City.
- 10. Charles E. Lindblom, The Science of Muddling Through.
- 11. Paul Davidoff, Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning.
- 12. John Forester, Challenges of Deliberation and Participation.
- 13. Patsy Healey, Traditions of Planning Thought.
- IV. Planning in Action: Successes, Failures, and Strategies. Section Introduction.
- 14. Matti Siemiatycki, Implications of Private-Public Partnerships on the Development of Urban Public Transit Infrastructure: The Case of Vancouver, Canada.
- 15. James deFilippis, Collective Ownership and Community Control and Development: The Long View.
- 16. Vivien Lowndes, Citizenship and Urban Politics.
- 17. Bent Flyvbjerg, Bringing Power to Planning Research: One Researcher's Praxis Story.
- V. Race, Gender and City Planning. Section Introduction.
- 18. Iris Marion Young, Inclusion and Democracy.
- 19. June Manning Thomas, The Minority-race Planner in the Quest for a Just City.
- 20. Dolores Hayden, Nurturing: Home, Mom and Apple Pie.
- 21. Michael Frisch, Planning as a Heterosexist Project.
- VI. Conflicting Priorities. Section Introduction.
- 22. Scott Campbell, Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development.
- 23. American Institute of Certified Planners, Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct.
- 24. Frank Fischer, Public Policy as Discursive Construct: Social Meaning and Multiple Realities.
- 25. Nicholas Low and Brendan Gleeson, Environmental Justice.
- 26. Margaret Kohn, The Mauling of Public Space.
- VII Planning in a Globalized World. Section Introduction.
- 27. Ward Steven, Reexamining the International Diffusion of Planning.
- 28. Peter Evans, Political Strategies for More Livable Cities.
- 29. Yang Zheng and Ke Fang, Is history repeating itself? Urban Renewal in the United States to Inner-City Redevelopment in China.
- 30. Oren Yiftachel, Re-engaging Planning Theory? Towards 'South-Eastern' Perspectives.
Readings in Planning Theory, 4nd edition (2016)
- Part I: The Development of Planning Theory
- 1. Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century: Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier / Robert Fishman
- 2. Co-evolutions of Planning and Design: Risks and Benefits of Design Perspectives in Planning Systems / Harro de Jong
- 3. Authoritarian High Modernism / James C. Scott
- 4. The Death and Life of Great American Cities / Jane Jacobs
- 5. Planning the Capitalist City / Richard E. Foglesong
- 6. The Three Historic Currents of City Planning / Peter Marcuse
- Part II: What Are Planners Trying to Do? The Justifications and Critiques of Planning
- 7. The Planning Project / Patsy Healey
- 8. Urban Planning in an Uncertain World / Ash Amin
- 9. Arguments For and Against Planning / Richard E. Klosterman
- 10. Is There Space for Better Planning in a Neoliberal World? Implications for Planning Practice and Theory / Craig Watkins
- 11. Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development / Scott Campbell
- 12. Disasters, Vulnerability and Resilience of Cities / Brendan Gleeson
- 13. Spatial Justice and Planning / Susan S. Fainstein
- Part III: Implications of Practice for Theory
- 14. The Neglected Places of Practice / Robert Beauregard
- 15. Home, Sweet Home: American Residential Zoning in Comparative Perspective / Sonia Hirt
- 16. Understanding Community Development in a "Theory of Action" Framework: Norms, Markets, Justice / Laura Wolf-Powers
- 17. Participatory Governance: From Theory to Practice / Frank Fischer
- 18. Cultivating Surprise and the Art of the Possible: The Drama of Mediating Differences / John Forester
- Part IV: Wicked Problems in Planning: Identity, Difference, Ethics, and Conflict
- 19. Inclusion and Democracy / Iris Marion Young
- 20. Towards a Cosmopolitan Urbanism: From Theory to Practice / Leonie Sandercock
- 21. Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning / Paul Davidoff
- 22. The Minority-Race Planner in the Quest for a Just City / June Manning Thomas
- 23. The Past, Present, and Future of Professional Ethics in Planning / Martin Wachs
- 24. Insurgent Planning: Situating Radical Planning in the Global South / Faranak Miraftab
- Part V: Planning in a Globalized World
- 25. Place and Place-Making in Cities: A Global Perspective / John Friedmann
- 26. Urban Informality: The Production of Space and Practice of Planning / Ananya Roy
- 27. Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe's Central Urban Issues / Vanessa Watson
- 28. Global Cities of the South: Emerging Perspectives on Growth and Inequality / Gavin Shatkin.
- Campbell, Scott, and Susan S. Fainstein. Readings in Planning Theory (Wiley, 1996).
- Whittmore, Andrew. "How Planners Use Planning Theory." Planetizen, February 2, 2015.
[adapted from Whittemore, Andrew H. "Practitioners Theorize, Too Reaffirming Planning Theory in a Survey of Practitioners’ Theories." Journal of Planning Education and Research (2014). DOI: 10.1177/0739456X14563144,
- Wikipedia. "Theories of Urban Planning." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theories_of_urban_planning.